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Circular 213
Pilot Skills to make "Look-Out" more effective in Visual Collision Avoidance
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CIRCULAR PILOT SKILLS TO MAKE "LOOK-OUT" MORE EFFECTIVE IN VISUAL COLLISION AVOIDANCE Approved by the Secretary General and published under his authority INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION MONTREAL CANADA
Published in separate English, French, Russian and Spanish editions by the International Civil Aviation Organization. AN correspondence, except orders and subscriptions, should be addressed to the Secretary General. Orders for this publication should be sent to one of the following addresses, together with the appropriate remittance by bank draft or post office money order in U.S. dollars or the curretcy of the country in which the order is placed. Document Sales Unit International Civil Aviation Organization 1000 Sherbrooke Street West, Suite 400 Montreal, Quebec Canada H3A 2R2 Egypt. ICAO Representative, Middle East Office, 16 Hassan Sabri, Zamalek, Cairo. France. Representant de I'OACI, Bureau Europe, 3 bis, villa Emile-Bergerat, 92522 Neuilly-sur-Seine Cedex. ' India. Oxford Book and Stationery Co., Scindia House, New Delhi or 17 Park Street, Calcutta. Japan. Japan Civil Aviation Promotion Foundation, 15-12, 1-chome, Toranomon, Minato-Ku, Tokyo. Kenya. ICAO Representative,-Eastern and Southern African Office, United Nations Accommodation, P.O. Box 46294 Nairobi. Mexico. Representante de la OACI, Oficina Norteamhrica, Centroamerica y Caribe, Apartado postal 5-377, C.P. 11590, Mexico 5, D.F. Peru. Representante de la OACI, Oficina Sudamerica, Apartado 4127, Lima 100. Senegal. Representant de I'OACI, Bureau Afrique occidentale et centrale, Boite postale 2356, Dakar. Spain. Pilot's, Suministros Aeronauticos, S.A., C/Ulises, 5-Oficina Num. 2, 28043 Madrid. Thailand. ICAO Representative, Asia and Pacific Office, P.O. Box 614, Bangkok. United Kingdom. Civil Aviation Authority, Printing and Publications Services, Greville House, 37 Gratton Road, Cheltenham, Glos., GL50 2BN. Do you receive the ICAO BULLETIN The ICAO Bulletin contains a concise account of the activities of the Organization as well as articles of interest to the aeronautical world. The Bulletin will also keep you up to date on the latest ICAO publications, their contents, amendments, supplements, corrigenda and prices. Available in three separate editions English, French and Spanish. Annual subscription U.S.20.00 surface mail U.S.25.00 air mail.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introduction ............................................................ Causes of mid-air collisions .............................................. Limitations of the eye ................................................... Visual scanning technique ............................................... How to scan ........................................................... Scan patterns .......................................................... The time-sharing plan ................................................... Collision avoidance checklist .............................................
1.1 The practice of "see-and-avoid" is recognized as the primary method that a pilot uses to minimize the risk of collision when flying as an uncontrolled flight in visual meteorological conditions. "See-and-avoid" is directly linked with a pilot's skill at looking about outside the cockpit or flight deck and becoming aware of the surrounding visual environment. Its effectiveness can be greatly improved if the pilot can acquire skills to compensate for the limitations of the human eye. These skills include the application of effective visual scanning, the ability to listen selectively to radio transmissions from ground stations and other aircraft to create a mental picture of the traffic situation, and the development of habit patterns that can be described as "good airmanship". 1.2 This circular aims to make pilots aware of the skills required to make "look-out'' more effective and is directed mainly towards those pilots who do most of their flying under visual flight rules VFR. The skills should be of interest to all pilots, however, regardless of the type of aircraft they fly and the flight rules under which they fly since no pilot is immune to collisions. 1.3 A study of over two hundred reports of mid-air collisions showed that they can occur in all phases of flight and at all altitudes. It may be surprising that nearly all mid-air collisions occur during daylight hours and in excellent visual meteorological conditions. While the majority of mid-air collisions occurred at lower altitudes where most VFR flying is carried out, collisions can and did occur at higher altitudes. Because of the concentration of aircraft in the vicinity of aerodromes, most collisions occurred near aerodromes when one or both aircraft were descending or climbing. Although some aircraft were operating as instrument flight rules IFR flights, most were VFR and uncontrolled. 1.4 The pilots involved in the collisions ranged in experience from first solo to 15 000 hours of flight time, and their reasons for flying that day were equally varied. In one case a private pilot flying cross-country, legally VFR, in a single-engine aircraft collided with a turboprop aircraft under IFR control flown by two long-time experienced airline pilots. In another case, a 7 000-hour commercial pilot on private business in a twin-engine aircraft overtook a single- engine aircraft on its final approach piloted by a young flight instructor giving dual instruction to a non-soloed student pilot. Two commercial pilots, each with well over 1 000 hours, collided while ferrying a pair of new single-engine aircraft and two private pilots with about 200 hours logged between them collided while on local pleasure flights in small single-engine aircraft. 1.5 There is no way to say whether it is the experienced or the inexperienced pilot who is more likely to be involved in a mid-air collision. While a novice pilot has much to think about and so may forget to maintain an adequate look-out, the experienced pilot, having flown through many hours of routine flight without spotting any hazardous traffic, may grow complacent and forget to scan. 1.6 If you learn to use your eyes and maintain vigilance through proper awareness, it will not be difficult for you to avoid mid-air collisions. The results of studies of the mid-air collision problem show that there are certain definite warning patterns.
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Table Of Contents
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TABLE OF CONTENTS