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Circular 302
Human Factors Digest No. 16 - Cross-Cultural Factors in Aviation Safety
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I C A OCIRCULARINTERNATIONALCIVIL AVIATIONORGANIZATIONMONTREALCANADACIRCULAR 302-AN/1752004HUMAN FACTORS DIGESTNo. 16CROSS-CULTURAL FACTORSIN AVIATION SAFETYApproved by the Secretary Generaland published under his authority
i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introduction ................................................................. 1 Chapter 1. Culture, context and cultural interfaces in aviation ........................ 4 Introduction ............................................................ 4 Culture and context ...................................................... 5 Cultural interfaces ....................................................... 8 Summary .............................................................. 12 Chapter 2. The safety case for cultural interfaces in aviation ......................... 13 Introduction ............................................................ 13 The SHEL model ........................................................ 13 Reasons model of latent conditions .......................................... 16 Cultural interfaces and the Threat and Error Management model .................... 19 Summary .............................................................. 21 Chapter 3. A dominant model in aviation some consequences ....................... 22 Manufacturing .......................................................... 22 Markets and standards .................................................... 22 Research and technology .................................................. 25 Global consequences of weighted interfaces ................................... 26 Interactions at weighted cultural interfaces ..................................... 28 Summary .............................................................. 29 Chapter 4. The way forward ................................................... 31 Introduction ............................................................ 31 Raising awareness It takes two to tango ...................................... 31 Data-driven research ..................................................... 36 Cultural mediators An indispensable component ................................ 37 Summary and conclusion .................................................. 37 References and additional reading ............................................... 39
1 INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVE The objective of this digest is to provide the participants in the decision-making process in the aviation industry including regulatory authorities and airline personnel with an awareness of cultural interfaces and the impact of cross-cultural factors on aviation safety. While the digest suggests possible avenues of action, it does not however propose solutions, because these solutions will only emerge as consequences of cross-cultural research in operational settings. AUDIENCE The digest is aimed at managers of both civil aviation administrations and the airline industry, including airline operational and training managers. The target audience also includes regulatory bodies, safety and investigation agencies and training establishments, as well as senior and middle non-operational airline management. WHY THIS DIGEST IS IMPORTANT Cross-cultural interactions are a daily occurrence in international civil aviation, but their real significance to aviation safety is only marginally understood. In the absence of clear understanding, the safety issues underlying cross-cultural interactions are either ignored or incomplete assumptions about their significance are made. Disturbingly, some of these incomplete assumptions are acted upon. Therefore, the first step is to define and analyse the safety cases potentially underlying cross-cultural interactions and cultural interfaces in international civil aviation specifically, to identify those areas with the greatest potential to threaten the safety and efficiency of aviation operations. Decision-makers in international civil aviation will find in this digest the basic information to guide them in defining and analysing these safety cases. SUMMARY OF THE DIGEST Chapter 1 provides the background on culture, context and cultural interfaces in aviation. Chapter 2 presents the safety case for cultural interfaces in aviation safety by using the SHEL model, the Reasons model of latent conditions, and the Threat and Error Management TEM model. Chapter 3 discusses the evolution of a dominant model or way of doing things in aviation and highlights both the positive and negative consequences of that dominance with regard to cultural interfaces. Chapter 4 proposes a way forward through two solutions a raise awareness of cultural interfaces and their threat potential among various aviation personnel, including those who shape the dominant model and
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Table Of Contents
COVER PAGE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4