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Circular 44
Atmospheric Turbulence in Relation to Air Navigation
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ICAO CIRCULAR 44-/39 CIRCULAR 1 ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE IN RELATION TO AIR NAVIGATION RESEARCH PROGRAMME AND DEVELOPMENT OF DESCRIPTIONS FOR USE IN REPORTING Prepared in the Air Navigation Bureau and published by authority 01 the Secretary General INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION MONTREAL CANADA
This Publication is issued in English, French and Spanish. Published in Montreal, Canada, by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Correspondence concerning publications should be addressed to the Secretary General of ICAO, International Aviation Building, 1080 University Street, Montreal, Canada. Orders for ICAO publications should be sent, on payment In Canadian currency 1, to In Sterling or Irish currency s/d, to Secretary General, ICAO, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, International Aviation Building, P.0. BOX 569, 1080 University Street, London, S,E. 1, Montreal, Canada, England. Cable address ICAO MONTREAL cable address WHOLECORN, SEDIST, LONDON In French currency fr, to In Egyptian currency L. E., to ICAO Representative, ICAO Representative, E ro ean and Afican Office, Middle East Office, 60' avenue dll6na, Wadie Saad Building, Paris 16e, France. Sharia Salah el Dine, Cable address ICAOREP PARIS Zamalek, Cairo, Egypt, Cable address ICAOREP CAIRO In Peruvian currency soles, to In Thai currency bahts to ICAO Representative, ICAO Representative, South American Office, Far East and Pacific Office, Apartado 680, Sala Santitham, Rajadamnoen Ave., Lima, PerG. Bangkok, Thailand. Cable address ICAOREP LIMA Cable address ICAOREP BANGKOK In Australian currency s/d, to In Indian currency Rs . , to Robertson and Mullens, 107 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne, C .1. Australia. Oxford Book and Stationery Company. Scindia House, New Delhi, India. In Argentine currency pesos, to Editorial Sudamericana S. A. , Calle Alsina 500, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Cable address LLBRECOL BUENOS AIRES
IC A0 Circular 44 -AN/ 39 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD ......................5....t...............,..b.... SUMMARY ...............r.........,.................lb........ PART I - ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE RESEARCH IN RELATION TO CIVIL AVIATION 1. - Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . , . , , . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, - The development of equipment for the measurement of high level turbulence . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . 3. - Investigations of clear air turbulence . . . , . . . . . . . . . . , . 4. - Clear air turbulence and instability of atmospheric flow ............................................ 5. - Turbulence in clouds . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. - Orographically induced turbulence . . . . , . . . . , . . . . , , . . 7. - Conclusions . . . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. - Action proposed to the MET Division, fourth Session . . Appendix A to Part I - Summary of theories relating to stability of atmospheric flow . . . . . . PART I1 -CONSIDERATION OF THE POSSIBILITY OF DEVELOPING IMPROVED SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE REPORTING OF TURBULENCE FOR AVIATION PURPOSES 1. - Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . 2. - Characteristics and scale of atmospheric turbulence . . 3. - Atmospheric turbulence and aircraft response . . . . . , . . 4. - Theoretical advances in the knowledge of the structure of atmospheric turbulence.. . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . , . . . . 5. - The problem of defining and measuring significant parameters in turbulent flow, and the definition of 'JgustJ' ............I... I...............,.,....... 6. - Conclusions . . . . . , . . . . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . . 7. - Action proposed to the MET Division, fourth Seesian . , Appendix A to Part II - ecornmendations/resolutione of the WMO/IMO relating to definition of "gust" . . . . , , . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . Appendix B to Part I1 - References to the concept of gust in ICAO documents . . . . , . . , , . . . . . Pag e 3
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Table Of Contents
COVER PAGE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD
PART I
PART II