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Circular 91
The Effect of Variable Runway Slopes on Take-Off Runway Lengths for Transport Aeroplanes
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CIRCULAR THE EFFECT OF VARIABLE RUNWAY SLOPES ON TAKE-OFF RUNWAY LENGTHS FOR TRANSPORT AEROPLANES F repared by the Secretariat and published by authority of the Secretary General INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGAN1 ZATION MONTREAL CANADA
Published in separate English, French und Spanish editions by the International Civil Aviation Organization. All correspondence, except orders and subscriptions, should be addressed to the Secretary General of ICAO, International Aviation Building, 1080 University Street, Montreal 3 Quebec, Canada. Orders for this publication should be sent to one of the following addresses, together with the appropriate remittance by bank draft or post office money order in U.S. dollars or the currency of the country in which the ortlrr is plctd or in a freely convertible currency Australia Robertson and Mullens, 107 Peru Representante de la OACI, Oficina Elizabeth Street, Melbourne, C. 1. Sudambrica, Apartado 4127, Lima. chnada Department of Public Printing senegal Representant de QACI, B and Stationery, Ottawa Ontario. Africur. Boite uostale 2358. Dakar. France Reprksentant de l'OACI, Bureau Europe, 3bls, villa BmiLe-Bergerat, Neuilly- Sweden C. E. Fritzes Kungl. Hovbokhan- sur-Seine Seine. del, Fredsgatan 2. Box 16356, Stockholm 16. India Oxford Book and Stationery Co., Thailand ICAO Repreqentative, Far East Scindia House, New Delhi or 17 Park Street, and pacific office, p.0. o 019, Bangkok, Calcutta. J japan civil ii promotion United Arab Republic ICAO Represen- Foundation, N. 38 Shiba Kotohira-Cho, tative, Middle East and Eastem African Mnato-Ku, Tokyo. Office, 16 Ilassan Sabri, Zamalek, Cairo. Mexico Editorial Hennes S.A., Ignacio ITnited Kingdom Her Majesty's Stationery Mariscal 41, Mhxico 4, D.F. Office, P.O. Box 569, London, S.E. I. International Civil Aviation Organization Atenion Distrihrtion Officer, International Aviation Building, 1080 University Street, Montreal 3 Qt-brc , Cnada. Do you receive the ICAO BULLETIN The ICAO Bulletin contains a concise account of the activities of the Organization as well as articles of interest to the aero- nautical world. The Bulletin will also keep you up to date on the latest lCAO publications, their contents, amendments, supplements, corri- gmda, and prices. Available in three separate editions English, French and Spanish. Annual subscription U.S. 2.00.
FOREWORD For some time Annex 14-Aerodromes specified that the length of a runway should be corrected to account for the effect of local factors such as eleva- tion, temperature and slope, on the take-off distances required by aeroplanes. Methods for correcting for elevation and temperature had been previously agreed and included in the Annex. No methods had been agreed for correcting for slope. This fact was noted by the Seventh Session of the Aerodromes, Air Routes and Ground Aids AGA Division at its meeting in 1962. It was considered that a study of the problem could result in the development of one standard method for cor- rection and the following recommendation was made RECOMMENDATION 2/6 - RUNWAY SLOPE EFFECT AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS That 1 a complete study of the effect of slopes on runway take-off distances based on assumptions acceptable to all Contracting States be made in order to achieve a uniform criterion for runway length correction factors and 2 theresultsofthatstudybeconsideredfor incorporation in Annex 14, as a specification or guidance material. To undertake the study a large amount of detailed information on aero- plane characteristics was required. The use of a computer was also considered necessary because of the number of variables involved and the numerous possible combinations of runway slopes. It was decided to engage the services of the University of California, Berkeley, California, to undertake the study. Work began in June 1966 and was completed in August 1968. The following report was prepared by G. Ahlborn and R. Horonjeff of the university. The Fifth Air Navigation Conference, meeting in November/December 1967,had available a preliminary report prepared by the university. This pre- liminary report enabled the conference to make a recommendation for amendment of Annex 14 to include a correction factor for runway slope. The conference recognized that its recommendation might need modification in the light of the final report of the miver sity. The conference also recommended, Re comrnenda - tion 3/3, that the final report be distributed to States. This circular is prepared in accordance with the action set forth in Recommendation 3/3. The contents of this circular reflect the views of its authors and not necessarily the views or policies of ICAO.
CONTENTS .......................................... Introduction ................ Review of Other Studies Related to Runway Slopes ............................ Factors Considered in This Study ...................... Aerodrome. Elevations Selected for Study .................... Aerodrome Temperatures Selected for Study .................................. Wind Selected for Study ................................ Runway Surface Conditions ................................. Slopes Selected for Study ................................ Aircraft Selected for Study ..................................... Airplane Operation ................ Procedure for Determining Effect of Runway Slope .......... The Effect of Aircraft Operating Rules on Sloping Runways ........................... Defining a Single Equivalent Slope .............................. Corrections for Uniform Slope .......................... Comparison of Runway Slope Indices ..................................... Analysis of Results .......................................... Conclusions ...................................... Recommendations Tables ............................................... ............................................. Figures ........................................... References
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Table Of Contents
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CONTENTS