INAO CIRCULAR 49-144 CIRCULAR FLIGHT CREW FATIGUE AND FLIGHT TIME LIMITATIONS Prepared by the Secretariat and published by authority of the Secretary General INTERNAT lONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION MONTREAL CANADA
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ICAO Circular 49-/44 i TABLE OF CONTENTS PART I . COMPENDIUM OF REGULATIONS .................. Foreword ............................... Table indicating type and scope of regulations in force in various States ........................... Regulations in force in various States ................ PART I1 - FLIGHT CREW FATIGUE ....................... List of references on fatigue and flight fatigue ........... Page 1 1
ICAO Circular 49-/44 1 FLIGHT CREW FATIGUE AND FLIGHT TIME LIMITATIONS PART I - COMPENDIUM OF REGULATIONS FOREWORD 1. Annex 6 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, which deals with the "Operation of Aircraft1' in "International Commer cia1 Air Transport", attempts to define a minimum acceptable level of safety for such operations. To this end it specifies the type of operating supervision which must be provided, certain basic operational procedures which must be followed, the basic duties of certain flight crew members, the types of radio and emergency equipment which must be carried, etc. Since one of the more important considera- tions pertaining to the safety of an aircraft operation is the proficiency of the crew, Annex 1 specifies that each flight crew member shall have demonstrated his general proficiency in obtaining an appropriate licence, and Annex 6 specifies that this shall be supplemented by addi- tional training and checking both to ensure the maintenance of this proficiency and to ensure continuing familiarity with the types of aircraft used and the routes flown. 2. While such measures help to ensure a high state of competence of flight crew members, the effectiveness with which this competence is available for use depends upcn each crew member's being sufficiently well rested to utilize his capabilities efficiently. Otherwise he may not respond as though proficient, but may make errors of judgment or action such as are associated with much lower degrees of proficiency than he has attained. This effect can be aggravated by various combinations of unfavourable operational circumstances, but the continuation of any task long enough under even the most favourable circumstances will ulti- mately produce fatigue and consequent loss of efficiency. The objective of current studies is therefore not only to assess the aggravating effect of various contributing factors, but also to determine the maximum flight time that should be allowed as a general rule. 3. As no reliable objective indices of fatigue are at present available from which to determine comparative degrees of fatigue accurately, rough approximations of the times involved in becoming tired enough to have clearly passed beyond the threshold of acceptable efficiency have so far had to suffice. Flying duties themselves can be a cause of fatigue if the duration to which one is exposed to them is excessive and duration of exposure can be and is used as one of the basic limitations designed to minimize fatigue. While such limitations are intended primarily to account for this single factor, it is noted that in many instances an attempt has been made to account for various other contributing factors by incorporating various types of exceptions and qualifying statements. As a result, there is considerable variation in the form and content of regulations adopted by States. In general, existing regulations specify the maximum periods of time during which flight personnel may be exposed to conditions most likely to induce fatigue, these periods being variously expressed in terms of hours of duty, or hours of flight time scheduled or planned, and they are generally supplemented by correspond- ing requirements for periods of rest. Regulations apply variously to the complete crew, the flight crew only, or to pilots and other members of the flight crew separately. 4. With a view to acquainting all States with the types of flight time limitations now in force, the Air Navigation Commission decided that a Circular should be iesued, con- taining a compilation of the current regulations of Contracting States, and those established by operators and approved by their States. 5, The regulations reproduced in this Circular indicate the manner in which various States at the time of issuance of the Circular have implemented the Standard in 22.214.171.124 of Annex 6. This Standard specifies that each State shall ensure that its operators establish limitations on the flight time of flight crew members, to ensure that fatigue does not endanger the safety of a flight. It also specifies that all such regulations be approved by the State of Registry. The publication of the regulations in this Circular does not indicate that ICAO en- dorses either the form or content of any of the regulations. The material contained herein is provided primarily for the information of Contracting States.