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Circular 195
Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems
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AIRBORNE COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEMS CIRCULAR 4985 INTERNATIONAL ClVlt AVIATfDH ORGANlZAf lQN MONTREAL CAMADA ApprovM by fhe Secretary General and published under his aufborify
Published in separate English, French. Russian and Spanish editions Y the International Civil Aviation Organriation. All crrespondence, wept orders and subscriplions, should be addressed to the Secretaty General. Orders for this publication should be sent to one of the following addresses, together with the ' appropriate remittance by bank draft or post office money order in U.S. dollars or the currency of the country in which the order is placed. Document Sales Unit International Civil Aviation Organization 1000 Sherbrmke Street West, Suite 400 Montted, Quebec Canada H3A 2R2 Argentim Et Ateneo, Pedro Garcia S. A.L.E. e I., Dpto. Cornpms - ImportacGn, Patagones 2463, 1282 Buenos Aires. Egypt. ICAO Representative, Middle East and Eastern Aftican Offioe, 16 Hassan Sabti, Zarnaiek. Cairo. France. Reprbntant de I'OACI. Bureau Europe, 3hs, villa Emile-Bergerat, 92522 Neuif ly-sur-Seine, Cedex. India. Oxford Book and Stationery Co.. Scindia House, New Deihi or f7 Park Street, Calcutta. Japan. Japan Civil Aviation Promotion Foundation, 15-1 2, 1 home, Toranomon, Minato-Ku, Tokyo. Kenyu. ICAO Representative, Eastern Afrian Office, United Nations Accommodation. P.O. Box 46 294 Nairobi. Mexico. Representante de la OACI, Oficiaa Norteambrica y Carib, Apartado postal 5-377, Mbxico 5, B.F. Pem. Representante de la OACI, Ofrcina Sudamkrica, Apartado 41 27, Lima 100. Senegal. Reprkntant de I'OACI, Bureau Afririque, Boite postale 2356. Dakar. Spain. Libreria de Aeronautics y Astrodutica Sumaas, Desengafio, 1 2-343, Madrid 13. lra'iland. ICAO Representative, Asia and Pacilic OFFice, P.O. Box 614, Bangkok. United Kingdom. Civil Aviation Authority, Printing and Publications Services, Grevilfe House, 37 Gralton Rmd, Cheltenham, Glos., GLSO 2BN. Do you receive the lCAO BULLETIN The ICAO Bulletin contains a eotlcise aekount of the activities of the Organization as well as articles of interest to the aeronautical world. The Bulfetin will also kmp you up to date on the latest lCAO publica- tions. their contents, amendments, supplements. corrigenda. and em. , Available in three separate editions English. French and Spanish. Amual sukription U.S. 15.00 surf- mail U.S. 20.00 lair mail.
FOREWORD At the ICAO Communications Divisional Meeting in April 1981, there was an extensive exchange of views regarding the evolution of secondary surveillance radar SSR and airborne collision avoidance systems. A number of recommendations were issued including the following RECOMMENDATION 112 - GUIDANCE MATERIAL RELATED TO DESIGN FEATURES AND OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AIRBORNE COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEMS That ICAO a Reaffirm the guidance material developed by the Seventh Air Navigation Conference and contained in the appendix to the report on Agenda Item 7 of Doc 9004 AN-CONFl7. b - Add the following guidance material to that contained in paragraph a above i Ground-based air traffic services will continue to be the fundamental means for assuring aircraft separation. ii Compatibility and full integration with current world-wide air traffic services can be achieved best by optimum application of SSR techniques to the problem of ground- based collision prevention and of airborne collision avoidance. iii States developing ground-based collision prevention and airborne collision avoidance systems should take account of activities under way in States and international organizations to improve the SSR system by adding discrete/selective addressing and data link capabilities. iv States developing compatible SSR improvements and airborne collision avoidance systems should take account of air traffic densities likely to be encountered during the lifetime of these systems. The use of SSR Mode S signals for air-to-air collision avoidance information exchange should be considered as a leading candidate signal format to assure the highest integrity of that communication link.
RECOMMENDATION 113 - ICAO FUTURE ACTIVITY ON SSR IMPROVEMENTS AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEMS That a States and international organizations in a position to do so, provide ICAO with technical descriptions and other related operational and technical information covering SSR improvements to provide for improved surveillance capability, discrete addressing of aircraft arid an integral automated data communication capability. b ICAO use the material provided as the result of a above to publish an ICAO circular. c ICAO, in parallel with the above activity, establish an appropriate body to develop Standards, Recommended Practices, guidance material and procedures related to SSR enhancement and related data link and collision avoidance systems. The guidance material referenced above was contained in the report of the Seventh Air Navigation Conference 5 to 28 April 1972 as follows GUIDANCE MATERIAL RELATING TO DESIGN FEATURES AND OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AIRBORNE COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEMS ACAS a Airborne collision avoidance systems must be fully compatible with ground ATC systems, and may need to provide for the automatic alerting of ATC units to any manoeuvres performed by aircraft as a result of ACAS operations. b The design and construction of equipments comprising an ACAS must be such that the system is capable of economic and practicable fitment, in all relevant classes of aircraft. Systems involving the use of different levels of performance characteristics to suit aircraft of different categories must be capable of compatible operation. c Avoidance manoeuvre indications given to pilots by ACAS equipment must at all times be compatible with individual aircraft performance capabilities in all relevant flight phases, and must be presented in real time. d The avoidance manoeuvre computation and selection processes inherent in the system must be capable of originating appropriate avoidance manoeuvre indications at least in the vertical plane. It is desirable that the avoidance manoeuvre indication capability also comprises the horizontal plane to increase system flexibility. e Manoeuvres initiated as a result of ACAS indications must not result in unsafe reduction of separation between affected aircraft and other "non-conflicting" aircraft operating in the same air traffic environment.
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