ICAO CIRCULAR 248.ATrtOl CIRCULAR REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN FARES, RATES AND COSTS FOR INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT Approved by the Secretary Gensd and published under his authotiiy INTERMATIOPIAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION MONTREAL CANADA
Published in wprrmte English, French, Russian and Spnish editions by the Intemiional Civil Aviation Orgunizarion. All correspondence, except orders and subscriptinns, should be addressed m the Secretary General. Orders for this publication should be sent to one of the following addresses, togerher with the appropriate remittance by bank draft. chque or money order in U.S. dollars or the currency of the country in which thc order is placed. Document Sates Unit lnlcrnalonal Civil Aviation Organization 1000 Sherbmkc Street West, Suite 400 Montmal, Quebec Canada H3A 2R2 TcI. 514 285-8022 Telex 05-25 13 Fax 5 14 285-6769 Sitatex YULCAYA Credit card ors Visa or American Express only are accepted at the above address. EWI. ICAO Rtprawnt31ive. Middle East Officc, 9 Shagaret El brr Street. Zamalek 1 121 I. Cairo. Fruncu. Reprkxntilnl de I'OACI. Bureau Europc el Attanlique Nord, 3 his, villa krnile-Bergcrat, 92522 Meuilly-sur-Seinc CPdex. India. Oxford Book and Stationery Co., Scindia House,'Ncw hlhi I 10001 or \7 Park Street, Calcutta 7WO16. The English Book Storc. 17-L Connaught Circus. New Delhi 1 10001. lapun. Japan Civil Aviation Promolion Foundation. 15- 12, 1 -chome. Toranomon, Minnia-Ku, Tokyo. Ken-vu. ICAQ Representative, Eastern and Southern African Ofice. United Nations Accommodation, P.O. Box 46294. Mairobi. Mexifi,. Representante de la O ACl, Okina NwteaMrica. Ccnmsrica y Caribe, Apartado postal 5-377. C.P. 0650, Mexico. D.F. Peru, Repraentante de la OACI. Oficina Sudilmtrica, Apdo 41 27. Lima 100. Senegrrl. ReprEsenmni dc I'OACI, Bureau Afrique occidentale ek centrale, Boite postale 2356, Dakar, Spin. Pilot's, Suministros AeronAulicos, S.A., C/Ulises. 5-Olicina Nirn. 2,28043 Madrid. A.EN .A. - Aeropuertm Espaiioles y Navepci6n A6rea. Calk Juan Ignacio Luca de Tena, 1 4. Planta Tercera, kspacho 3. 1 I, 28027 Madrid. Thrrihnd. 1CAO Representative, Asia and Pacific Office. P.O. Box 1 I. Samyaek Ladprao, Bangkok 10901. United Kingdom. Civil Aviation Authority. Printing and Publications Services, Grevillc House, 37 Graiton Road. Cheltenham, GIm., GL50 2BN. The Catalogue of lOublications and Audio Visual Training Aids Issued annually, the Catalogue lists all publications and audio visual training aids currently available. Monthly supplements announce new publications and audio visual training aids, amendments, supplements, reprints, eic. Available free from the Document Sales Unit, ICAO
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1 .I This study has been prepared pursuant to ICAO Assembly Resolution ,421-26 Clauses I b . and d, which directs the Council to undertake analyses of regional differences in the level of international passenger fares and corresponding differences in the level of airline costs. Covering the year 1 991, this study is the seventeenth in an annual series, the one for the year 1990 having been published as Circular 242. 1.2 For 17 international route groups, comprising all international routes, passenger, freight and mail revenue yield data are presented in Chapter 2 for scheduled services abng with passenger and freight revenue yield data for non-scheduled opratiuns. For the same route groups regional dietemes iin the costs related to the scheduled service passenger yields are presented in Chapter 3. Finally, certain of the causes of regional differences in costs are identified in Chapter 4. 1.3 The wurces of data used in the study are given in Appendix 1 together with information on the sample sizes on which revenue and mst data are based. The method of analysis used in the study is presented in Appendix 2 together with information on the margins of uncettainty which should be borne in mind when considering the results of studies of this kind. 1.4 Overviews of published passenger fares and freight rates are available in separate annual publications issued by the Organization in response to Clause la of Assembly Resolution A21-26. Circular 239 covers September 1991 and Circular 246 covers September 1992. 1.5 Unless indicated otherwise, all references in this Circular to "cents" mean "U.S. cents", and all references to "dollars" mean 'U.S. dollars".