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Circular 258
The World of Civil Aviation, 1994-1997
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Approved by the Secretary General and published under hls authority INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION
Published in sepamte English, Arabic, French, Rwian and Sporuporush editwns by the lntenurtional Civil Aviotion Organizananom. All comspoe, except orders ad subscriptions, sfwuU be dressed 10 tk Secretary Genera. Odem for this publication should be sent to one of the following addresses, together with the appropriate remitLance by bank draft. cheque Or money orclef in U.S. dollars or the curmy of fhe country in which the order is placed. Document Sales Unit International Civil Aviation Organization 1000 S herbrooke Street West, Suite 400 Montreal. Quebec Canada H3A 2R2 Tel. 5 14 285-8022 TcK. 05-245 13 Fax 5 14 285-6769 Sitatex YULCAYA Credit card ordas Visa or American Express only are accepted a the above address. Egypt. ICAO Representative, Middle East Office, 9 Shagaret El. Dorr Street, Zamalek 1121 1, Cairo. Frame. Reantant de YOACI, Bureau Europe et Atlantique Nod, 3 bis, villa mile-Bergerat, 92522 NwiIly-sur-Seine Cde. India. Oxford Bwk and Stationery Co., Scindia House. New Delhi 1 1 OOO1 or 17 Park Street, GIcuua 70001 6. The EngIlsh Book Store, 17-L Comghl Circus, New' Delhi 1 10001. Jam. Japan Civil Aviafion Promion Foundarion, 1 5-12. I -chome, Tomml, Minato-Ku, Tokyo. KenW ICAO -ntarive, Eastem d Southern African Office, United Nations Accomrnodatioa, P.O. Box 44294 Nairobi. Mexico. Representante de la OACI, Oficina Norteamkrica, Centrmdrica y Caribe, A-0 1 5-377, C.P. 06500, MexiC, D.E Peru. Representante de la OACI, Oficina Suddrica, Apartado 4127, Lima 100. Senegal. Reprkntant de POACI. Bureau Afrique widentale et centrale, Bok postale 2356, DM. Spujn. A,EN.A. - Aeropuwtos EspaiSoles y Navegwi6D. Ah, CMk Juan Ipacio Lvca de Tena, 14. Plw Temm, Despach 3. 1 1, 28027 Madrid. Thoilarrd. ICAO Representative. Asia and Pacific Office, P.O. Box 1 1, Samyaek Lrdlpmo, Bangkok 10901. United Kingdoat. Civil Aviation Aurhorify, hinting and Publications Services. Greville House, 37 Gmn Road, Cheltenbam. Glm, GWO 2BN. The Catalogue of ICAO Publications and Audio Visual Training Aids Issued annuany, the Catalogue lists all publications and audio visual training aids curtently availabb. Monthly supplamem announce new publications and audio visual trairiing aids, amendments, suppbrnents, reprints, a. Available free from the Dosument We8 Unit, -ICAO
HI'GHLIGHTS The world economy continued to recover ... The pace- of liberalization of international air services varied ... 7 The world's Gross Domestic Product GDP grew by an estimated 2.8 per cent in real terns. On a regional basis the change in GDP ranged from an estimated increase of nearly 5 per cent for Latin America and the Caribbean to a decrease of about 2 per cent for Europe, the latter being adversely affected by the poor economic performance of the former centrally planned economies in eastern Europ see Chapter 1. Several States amuunoed policy initiatives towards pater liberalization. Bilateral efforts to expand air services moved ahead in some instances and were suspended in others regional regulatory regimes foysed on specific issues such as state aids and ground handling. The Uruguay Round of trade negotiations was formally concluded. The resulting General Agreement on Trade in Services GATS which excluded air trffic rights but included three other aspects of international air transpod was to enter into force, along with the establishment of the supervisory World Trade Organization, on I January 1995 Chapter 2. ICAO examined present The World-wide Air Transport Conference renized and future regulatory important principles for the evolution of economic arrangements ... regulation of international air transport such as the effative participation of all States, safeguarded change and respect for existing rights reached concIusions on ten regdahry arrangements far the use of States and identified eight important issues for further study Chapter 2. Airling privatization slowed ... ... but foreign investment in airlines did not ... Only a few new privatization objectives were made known while slow progress wad3 made in the privatization of several, airlines Chapter 2. Airlines continued to expand tmnanational aiances, including code-sharing, joint services, and joint participation in frequent flyer programmes Chapter 2.
Airline traffic showed sustained growth .., ... and finurzces improved ... ... but aircrafi orders did not ... krpo construction continued ... Planning to implement a sutezlite-bused navigation system continued ... . .. meanwhile existirg air navigation facilitks and services were enhanced ... Safety remained a top priority ... Over-all scheduled passenger/freighVrnail tonne- kilometres performed were up by 9 per cent and inter- national. tonne-kilametres by 10 per cent. There were significant differences in the traffic growth between regions, ranging from increaws in total, traffic of about 5 per cent in Latin AmericalCaribbean to almost 13 per cent in AsidPacif3c Chapter 2. Preliminary estimates indicate that the world's scheduled airlines as a whole experienced an operating profit of 3.2 per cent of operating revenues for the second year in succession foIIowiag three years of opexating losses '1990-1992 Chapter 2. The number of turbo-jet aircraft ordered was 306 compared to 341 in 1994. The financial commitment for orders placed for these aircraR in 1994 is estimated to be about U.S.X billion, somewhat less than the U.S.17 billion estimated for 1993 Chapter 2. ke new international sirparts opened Osaka in Japan, Al fin in Abu Dbbi, United Arab Emirates, abd Sanya in China, construction on s numbs of other new airports continued and major expansion projects were under way in all regions. The evolution of autonomous authorities to operate airports and air navigation facility services also continued Chapter 3. Significant progress was made by a number of Stabs and international organizations in the planning and develop- ment for the implementation of a gld mte'Ilite-based Communications, Navigation and SurveillandAir -c Management CNSjATM system to replace existing line- of-sight ones Chapter 3. Air traffic control systems around the world were being updated as part of the evolution process to a global ATM system. Meteorological senices were also enhanced though the use of automated weather stations and computer gemrated weather forecasts Chapter 3. Pre1iminuy information on aircraft accidents invalving passenger fatalities in scheduled air services shows that there were 28 fatal aircraft accidenh invo1vhg 941 passenger fatalities in 1994 compared to 34 fatal accidents and 936 passenger fataGties in 1993. The number of passenger fatalities per LOO million passenger- kilometres remained at 0.05 as in 1993. During the year
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Table Of Contents
COVER PAGE
FOREWORD
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
PART II
Chapter 5
PART Ill
Chapter 6
Appendix 1
Appendix 2