International Civil Aviation OrganizationApproved by the Secretary Generaland published under his authorityAirportServices ManualFourth Edition 2002Doc 9137AN/898 ICAO 20023/02, E/P1/3200Order No. 9137P2Printed in ICAOPart 2Pavement Surface Conditions
AMENDMENTSThe issue of amendments is announced regularly in the ICAO Journal and in thesupplements to the Catalogue of ICAO Publications and Audio-visual TrainingAids, which holders of this publication should consult. The space below is providedto keep a record of such amendments.RECORD OF AMENDMENTS AND CORRIGENDAAMENDMENTSCORRIGENDANo.DateEntered byNo.DateEntered byii
iiiForewordThe provisions in Annex 14, Volume I, require States totake action as necessary to remove contaminants from themovement area as rapidly and completely as possible so asto minimize their accumulation and, thus, to provide goodfriction characteristics and low rolling resistance. Further,the Annex calls for the pavement surface to be kept clear ofany loose stones or other debris that might cause damage toaeroplane structures or engines or might impair the oper-ation of aeroplane systems. There is a requirement to assessthe condition of the pavement whenever it has not beenpossible to fully clear the contaminants and to make thisinformation available to the appropriate units at the airport.There is also a requirement to measure periodically thefriction characteristics of the runway and take appropriateactions whenever the friction characteristics are belowcertain levels specified by the State. The purpose of thismanual is to provide assistance to States in ensuring thatadequate measures are taken to overcome problems result-ing from contaminants or debris on, or weathering of, themovement area.It cannot be overemphasized that the goal of an airportauthority should be the removal from the movement area ofall contaminants and debris that adversely affect aeroplaneperformance. In this regard, continuing research has beendirected towards improving the economy and efficiency ofmechanical and chemical methods to remove contaminantsfrom the movement area. There are, however, circum-stances that justify a requirement for measurement of fric-tion values and, therefore, the development of acceptablemethods for these measurements.The possibility of obtaining correlation between thefriction values produced by different types of friction-measuring devices has been the subject of trials anddiscussions for some time. In 1972, ICAO approved aprogramme to determine the correlation between differentground equipment used to measure runway friction charac-teristics. As a result, a chart was developed showing thecorrelation between certain friction-measuring deviceswhen used on snow- or ice-covered surfaces. The corre-lation between the friction-measuring devices when usedon wet surfaces was unacceptable. Tests conducted in theUnited States in the 1990s indicated a somewhat differentcorrelation between friction-measuring devices on com-pacted snow- or ice-covered paved surfaces, which wasattributed to changes in test tire parameters. Extensivetesting with new tires under self-wet conditions has resultedin statistical verification of an acceptable correlationbetween the various continuous friction-measuring devices.This manual includes, inter alia, material concerningbasic factors affecting friction, correlation between friction-measuring devices on paved surfaces, description of thedevices, practices for measuring and reporting frictionvalues on snow-, ice- and water-covered surfaces, collec-tion and dissemination of pavement surface condition infor-mation, and clearance and removal of contaminants anddebris from the movement area.It is intended that this manual be kept up to date. Futureeditions will most likely be improved on the basis ofexperience gained and of comments and suggestionsreceived from users of this manual. Therefore, readers areinvited to give their views, comments and suggestions onthis edition. These should be directed to the SecretaryGeneral of ICAO.