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Doc 9157. Part 4. Edition 5
Last modified:1/1/2021
Aerodrome Design Manual. Part 4. Visual Aids
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Approved by and published under the authority of the Secretary GeneralINTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATIONDoc 9157Aerodrome Design ManualPart 4 Visual AidsFifth Edition, 2021
Approved by and published under the authority of the Secretary GeneralINTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATIONDoc 9157Aerodrome Design ManualPart 4 Visual AidsFifth Edition, 2021
Published in separate English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish editions by the INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION 999 Robert-Bourassa Boulevard, Montral, Quebec, Canada H3C 5H7 For ordering information and for a complete listing of sales agents and booksellers, please go to the ICAO website at www.icao.int Fifth Edition 2021 Doc 9157, Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4 Visual Aids ISBN 978-92-9265-343-9 ICAO 2021 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, without prior permission in writing from the International Civil Aviation Organization.
iii AMENDMENTS Amendments are announced in the supplements to the Products and Services Catalogue the Catalogue and its supplements are available on the ICAO website at www.icao.int. The space below is provided to keep a record of such amendments. RECORD OF AMENDMENTS AND CORRIGENDA AMENDMENTS CORRIGENDA No. Date Entered by No. Date Entered by
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Table Of Contents
COVER PAGE
AMENDMENTS
FOREWORD
ABBREVIATIONS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1. FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF VISUAL GROUND AIDS
1.2. OPERATIONAL FACTORS
1.1. INTRODUCTION
1.3. OPERATING REQUIREMENTS
1.4. HOW VISUAL AIDS AND VISUAL CUES SERVE PILOTS
1.5 DESIGNATION OF HIGH-, MEDIUM- AND LOW-INTENSITY LIGHTING
2.2 ADDITIONAL MARKING OF PAVED SHOULDERS
2.3 APRON MARKINGS
Chapter 2. MARKINGS AND MARKERS
2.1 GENERAL
2.4 TAXIWAY EDGE MARKERS
Chapter 3. SIGNAL AREA AND PANELS
3.2 DESIGN
3.1 GENERAL
Chapter 4. LIGHT CHARACTERISTICS FOR RUNWAYSAND TAXIWAYS USED IN LOW VISIBILITY CONDITIONS
4.2 FLIGHT PATH ENVELOPES
4.1 FACTORS DETERMINING REQUIREDLIGHT DISTRIBUTION
4.4 OPERATING PROCEDURES IN RVR LESS THAN 350 m
4.3 OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND ASSUMPTIONS
4.5 ANALYSIS OF LIGHTING DESIGN
4.6 LIGHTING SPECIFICATIONS
Chapter 5. LIGHT INTENSITY SETTINGS
Chapter 6. RUNWAY LEAD-IN LIGHTING SYSTEM*
7.2 LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS
7.1 INTRODUCTION
Chapter 7. CIRCLING GUIDANCE LIGHTS
8.1 GENERAL
Chapter 8. VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATOR SYSTEMS
8.2 T-VASIS
8.3 PAPI
9.1 INSET LIGHTS
Chapter 9. RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY LIGHTING
9.2 TAXIWAY EDGE LIGHTS — “SEA OF BLUE” EFFECT
9.3 EXIT TAXIWAY LIGHTING
Chapter 10. SURFACE MOVEMENT GUIDANCE AND CONTROL SYSTEMS
10.2 OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
10.1 GENERAL
10.3 THE ROLE OF VISUAL AIDS
10.4 VISUAL AID COMPONENTS OF AN SMGC SYSTEM
10.5 IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES
11.2 OPERATIONAL REQUIRMENTS
11.3 ARIWS - DESCRIPTION OF RUNWAY STATUS LIGHTS (RWSL) SYSTEM
Chapter 11. AUTONOMOUS RUNWAY INCURSION WARNING SYSTEM
11.1 INTRODUCTION
11.4 LOCATIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF RUNWAY ENTRANCE LIGHTS (RELs)
11.5 LOCATIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF TAKE-OFF HOLD LIGHTS (THLs)
11.6 EXAMPLE OF INSTALLATIONS WITH RWSL
Chapter 12. SIGNS
12.1 GENERAL
12.2 DESIGN
12.3 VARIABLE MESSAGE SIGNS
12.4 MANDATORY INSTRUCTION SIGNS
12.5 INFORMATION SIGNS
12.6 SIGN LOCATION
12.7 SIGN EVALUATION
13.1 INTRODUCTION
13.3 VISUAL DOCKING GUIDANCE SYSTEM
Chapter 13. VISUAL PARKING AND DOCKING GUIDANCE SYSTEMS
13.2 AIRCRAFT STAND MANOEUVRING GUIDANCE LIGHTS
14.2 FUNCTIONS
Chapter 14. APRON FLOODLIGHTING
14.1 INTRODUCTION
14.3 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
14.4 DESIGN CRITERIA
15.1 GENERAL
Chapter 15. MARKING AND LIGHTING OF OBSTACLES
15.2 CONSPICUITY ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES
15.3 MARKING
15.4 LIGHTING CHARACTERISTICS
15.5 LOCATION OF LIGHTING
15.6 INSTALLATION OF HIGH-INTENSITY OBSTACLE LIGHTING
15.7 MONITORING AND MAINTENANCE
16.2 OBSTACLES TO BE MADE FRANGIBLE
Chapter 16. FRANGIBILITY OF VISUAL AIDS
16.1 WHAT IS FRANGIBILITY?
16.3 VISUAL AIDS
17.2 LIGHTING SYSTEM DESIGN
Chapter 17. APPLICATION OF APPROACH ANDRUNWAY LIGHTING SYSTEMS
17.1 GENERAL
17.3 LIGHTING FOR NON-INSTRUMENT ANDNON-PRECISION APPROACH RUNWAYS
17.4 LIGHTING FOR PRECISION APPROACHRUNWAYS — CATEGORY I, II AND III
17.5 PATTERN VARIATIONS AND ADDITIONS
17.6 REDUCTION OF LIGHTING PATTERNS
17.7 SELECTION OF LIGHTING PATTERNS
18.2 THE MAINTENANCE ENVIRONMENT
Chapter 18. MAINTENANCE OF LIGHTING PERFORMANCE
18.1 GENERAL
18.3 MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS
18.4 MONITORING OF LIGHT OUTPUT
18.5 DEMONSTRATION OF CONFORMANCE
Chapter 19. MEASUREMENT OF THE LIGHT INTENSITY OFSTEADY BURNING AND FLASHING LIGHTS
19.1 INTRODUCTION
19.2 CRITERIA
19.3 FLASHING LIGHTS
Appendix 1. THE OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS OFVISUAL NOSE-IN DOCKING GUIDANCE SYSTEMS
Appendix 2. THE OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTSOF VISUAL PARKING GUIDANCE SYSTEMS
Appendix 3. SELECTION, APPLICATION AND REMOVAL OF PAINTS
Appendix 4. PROCEDURES FOR DEVELOPING LIGHT INTENSITIESFOR DAY CONDITIONS
Appendix 5. METHOD USED TO DEVELOP THE GRAPHICALPRESENTATIONS IN FIGURES 5-1 TO 5-3
Appendix 6. EYE-TO-WHEEL AND EYE-TO-AERIAL HEIGHTSOF AEROPLANES