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Circular 244
The World of Civil Aviation, 1992-1995
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Approved by the Secretary General and published under his authority INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION
Published in separate English, Arabic, French, Russian and Spanish edirions by the International Civil Aviafion Organization. A11 correspondence, except orders and sbscriptions, should be addressed to the Secretary Gtneral. Ordta for this publicadon should be sent to one of the following addresfies. together with the appropriate remittance by bank dnft. cheque or money order in U.S. dollars or the currency of the country in which the order is placed. Document Sales Unit Inemational Civil Aviation Organization 1000 Sherbrookc Smr West, Suire 400 Montreat. Quebec Canada H3A 2R2 Tcl. 5 14 285-821 9 Telex 05-245 13 Fax 5 14 288-4772 ' Silate YULCAYA Credit card orders Visa or American Express only are accepted at the above address. Egypt. lCAO Representative, Middle East Office, 9 Shagat El krr Stt. Zamalek 1 121 1. Cairn. France. Reprknlant de I'OACI, Bureau Europe et Atlantique Mord. 3 bis, villa krnile-ererat, 92522 Neuilly-sac-Seine Cedex. India. Oxford Book and Stationery Co., Scindia House, New klhi or 17 Park Srreel, Calcutta. Jupun, Japan i vil Aviation homotion Foundation, 15- 1 2, I -chome, Toranomon, Minatc-Ku, Tokyo. Kenyu. ICAO Representative, Eastern and Southern African Oftice, United Nations Accommodation, P.O. Box 46294, Nairobi. Mexico. Representante la OACI, Oticina Norteamkrica, Centmadrica y Cxibe, Apattado postal 5-377, C.P. 05500. Mtxico. D.F. Pmr. Representante de la OACI, Oficina Sudamkrica, Apartado 41 27, Lima 100. Senegal. Repesentant de I"OAC1, Bureau Afnque occidentale et centrale, Bok postale 2356, Dakar. Spin. Pilot's, Suminlstros AeronWcos, S.A., Wlises, 5-Oficina Niim. 2,28043 Madrid. Thailand. ICAO Representakive. Ada and Pacific Ofice. P.O. Box 1 I. Sarnyaek Ladprao, Bangkok 10901. United Kingdm Civil Aviation Authority, hinling and Publications Services. Greville House, 37 Gratton Rod, Chellenham, Glhs., GL50 28N. The Catalogue of lCAO Publications and Audio Visual Training Aids Issued annually, the Catalogue lists all publications and audio visual training aids currently available. Monthly supplements announce new publications and audio visual training aids, amendments, supplements, reprints, etc. Available free from the Document Sales Unit, ICAO
HIGHLIGHTS The world economy showed SS OWCDU ... Progressive li berulkation of air transport semices continued ... ICAO initiated a review of the economic regulation of air transport ... Airlim privatization trends continued ... ... as did foreign ownership ,... Airline trafic rebounded ... The world's Gross Domestic Product GDP grew by an estimated 1 per cent in real terns. On a regional basis the change in GDP ranged from an estimated increase of 8 per cent for the Middle East to a decrease of about 4 per cent for Europe, the Iatlter being adversely aflwted by the poor mnornic performance of the former centrally planned economies in Eastem Europe see Chapter 1. A growing number of countries were involved world-wide. The European Community EC adopted a "third package" of liberalization for application from 1 January 1993. Xn addition, member States of the EC and, with the exception of Switzerland, those of the European Free Trade Association EFTA reached agreement to extend EC air transport rules to the EFTA countries involved Chapter 2. As an outcome of a World-wide Air Transpod Colloquium in April, lCAO set up a study group of experts to cany out studies on new regulatory arrangements for inter- national air transport. The results of these studies will be evaluated by an Air Transport Conference ta be convened in overnberecember 1994 Chapter 2. By year-end partial or full privatization objectives were made known for some 30 government-owned air carriers, including 16 which had been targeted for privatization in the the previous years 'out had not yet achieved this aim Chaphr 2. Airlines also continued to expand transnational allianoes, includimg code sharing, joint services, and joint parbicipa- tion in frequent flyer programmes Chapter 2. Total scheduled air traffic recwered from the first ever annual decline recorded, to reach levds above 1990. Over- all passenger/freight/rnail tonne-kilometres performed . were up by 6 per cent and international tonne-kilometres by XI per cent Chapter 2.
... but not finances ... ... and aircraft orders were down ... Airport construction continued ... Satellite-based navigation systems got the green light ... Airspace capacity was enhanced ... Safety remained a top priority ... Security was also at the forefront . .. Preliminary estimates indicate that the world's scheduled airlines as a whole experienced an operating loss of 0.5 per cent of operating revenues for the third year in a row Chapter 2. The number of fixed wing aircraft ordered was 362 against 397 in 1991. The financial commitment for orders placed for turbo-jet aircraft in 1992 is estimated to be about U.S.21 billion, somewhat less than the U.S.29 billion estimated for 1991 Chapter 2. Two new international airports opened Yaoundk- Nsimaleu in Cameroon and Munich I1 in Germany, construction on a number of other new airports continued and major expansion projects were under way in all regions. A trend towards governments establishing autonomous authorities to operate airports and air navigation facility services also continued Chapter 3. The ICAO Assembly endorsed a blueprint for a global satellite-based Communications, Navigation and Surveil- 1ancelAir Traffic Management CNSIATM concept to replace existing line-of-sight systems Chapter 3. Air traffic control systems around the world were being updated as part of the evolution process to a global ATM system. The European Air Traffic Control Harmonization and Integration Programme EATCHIP was initiated to establish a single, unified ATC system for Europe Chapter 3. Preliminary information on aircraft accidents involving passenger fatalities in scheduled air services shows there were 29 fatal aircraft accidents involving 1 097 passenger fatalities in 1992 compared to 30 fatal accidents and 653 passenger fatalities in 1991. The number of passenger fatalities per 100 million passenger-kilometres increased from 0.04 in 1991 to 0.06 in 1992. The incidence of aircrafl accidents involving controlled flight into terrain CFIT became a particular concern Chapter 4. In 1992 there were nine acts of unlawful interference, a significant decrease compared to 1991 Chapter 4.
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Table Of Contents
COVER PAGE
FOREWORD
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
PART II
Chapter 5
PART Ill
Chapter 6
Appendix 1
Appendix 2