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Circular 250
The World of Civil Aviation, 1993-1996
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Approved by the Secretary General and published under his authority
Published in separate English, Arabic, French, Russian atid Swish editions by the Inrerniml Civil Aviation 0rgoniz.atioa A11 correspondence, except orders and subscriptions, should be addressed to the Secretary General. . 03ders for this publication should be sent to one of the following addressas, together wih the appropriate remittance by bank draft, cheque or money order in U.S. dollars or the currency of the country in which the order is placed. Document Sales Unit lntcrnational Civil Aviation Organization t OOQ Skrbrooke Street West, Suite 400 Montreal. Queb Canada HJA 2R2 Tel. 5 14 285-8022 Telex 05-2451 3 FK 5 14 285-6769 Sitatex YULCAYA Credit card orders Visa or American Express only are accept4 at the above address. . Eg-vpt. lCAO Representative. Middle East Office, 9 Shagaret El Dorr Street, Zamalek 1 121 1, Cairo. France. Repksentant de I'OACI, Bureau Europe et Atlantique Nord. 3 his, villa 6mile-ergcral, 92522 Neuilly-sur-Seine Cedex. India. Oxford Book and Stationery Co., Scindia House, New Delhi I 10001 nr 17 Park Street. Calcutta 700016. The English Book Store, 17-L Connaught Circus, New Delhi 1 1000 1. Jopn. Japan Civil Aviation Promotion Foundation, 15-1 2, I -chorne, Toranomon, Minaio-Ku. Tokyo. Kenyu. ICAO Representative, Eastern and Southern African Ofice, Uniled Nations Accommdation, P.O. Box 46294, Nairobi. Mexico. Repre.wntrulte de la OACI, Oficina Norteamkrica, Centroamkrica y Caribe. Apartado postal 5-377, C.P. 06500, Mexico, D.F. Peru. Representante de la OACI,, Oficim Surlamica, Apho 41 27, Lima lw. Senegnl. Represeniant de I'OACI. Bureau Afrique occidentale et centrale, Boite postale 2356, Dakar. Spin. Pilot's, Suministros Aeronfiuticos, S.A., CIUlises, 5-Oficina N6m. Z 28043 Madrid. A.E.N.A. - Aeropuertm bpafioles y Navegaci6n Atm, Calle Juan lgnacio Luca de Tena, 14, Planla Terceta, Despacho 3. 1 1,28027 Madrid. Thaibnd.. 1CAO Representative, Asia and hcific Office, P.O. Box 1 1, Samyaek Ladprao. Bangkok 1090 1 . United Kingdom. Civil Aviation Authority, Printing and Publications Services, Creville use, 37 Cratton Rod, Cheltenham, Glm., GWO 2BN. The Catalogue of lCAO Publications and Audio Visual Training Aids Issued annually, the Catalogue lists all publications and audio visual training aids currently available. Monthly supplements announce new publications and audio visual training aids, amendments, supplements, reprints, etc. Available free from the Document Sales Unit, ICAO
HIGHLIGHTS The world economy continued to recover ... Progressive liberalization of air transport services continued ... ICAO convened Conference for 1994 on new regulatory arrangements ... Airline privatization slackened ... ... but foreign investment in airlines did not ... Airline traffic showed sustained growth ... The wor1d"s Gross Domestic Product IGDP grew by an estimated 1.7 per cent in real terms. On a regional basis the change in GDP ranged from an estimated increase of about 4 per cent for AsidPacific to a decrease of about 3 per cent for Europe, the latter being adversely affected in part by the poor economic performance of the farmer centrally planned economies in eastern Europe see Chapter 1. Initiatives were taken bath at the national level and at a regional level, such as by the European Communities and by States belonging to the Andean Pact. On a broader " scale, a General Agreement en Trade in Services GATS with an Annex on Air Transport Services was adopted at the end of the year, covering certain air transport elements but excluding trc rights and services directly related to the provision of air services Chapter 2. The Council of ICAO convened a world-wide Air Transport Conference to take place in 1994 to discuss substantive studies of potential new regulatory arrangements for international air transport Chapter 2. The privatization of several airlines was deferred bcause of general economic conditions, the state of the industry or local circumstances Chapter 2. Airlines continued to expand transnational alliances, including code sharing, joint services, and joint participation in frequent flyer programmes Chapter 2. Over-all scheduled passengerlfreightJmai1 tonne- kilometres performed were up by 4 per cent and inter- national tame-kilometres by 8 per cent. However, there were significant Merences between regions, ranging from a small decrease about 1 per cent in total traffic in Africa to increases of about 10 per cent in the Middle East and AsiaPacific Chapter 2.
... and finances finally turned the corner ... Preliminary estimates indicate that the world's scheduled airlines as a whole experienced a small operating profit of 1.1 per cent of operating revenues after three consecutive years of operating losses Chapter 2. ... but aikcraft orders were The number of turbo-jet aircraft ordered was 341 down ... compared to 362 in 1992. The financial commitment for orders placed for these aircraft in 1993 is estimated to be about U.S.17 000 million, somewhat less than the US. 21 000 million estimated for 1992 Chapter 2. Airport construction continued ... Planning to implement a satellite-based navigation system began ... ... meanwhile existing air navigation facilities and services were enhanced ... Safety remained a top priority ... Security continued to be a major issue ... Three new international airports opened Ciudad del Este in Paraguay, Liberia in Costa Rica and Bequia in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, construction on a nwnber of other new airports continued and major expansion projects were under way in all regions. A trend towards governments establishing autonomous authorities to operate airports and air navigation facility services also continued Chapter 3. Plans for the transition to a global satellite-based Communications, Navigation and SurveillancdAir Traffic Management CNSIATM system to replace existing line- of-sight ones were initiated by ICAO Chapter 3. Air traffic control systems around the world were being updated as part of the evolution process to a global ATM system. Meteorological services were also enhanced through the use of automated weather stations and computer generated weather forecasts Chapter 3. Preliminary information on aircraft accidents involving passenger fatalities in scheduled air services shows that there were 34 fatal aircraft accidents involving 936 passenger fatalities in 1993 compared to 29 fatal accidents and 1 097 passenger fatalities in 1992. The numhr of passenger fatalities per 100 million passenger- kilometres decreased from 0.06 in 1992 to 0.05 in 1993. During the year prominence was given to studies on Human Factors in the prevention of aircraft accidents Chapter 4. The number of acts of unlawful interference increased significantly. In 1993 there were twenty-nine such incidents compared with only nine in 1992 Chapter 4.
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Table Of Contents
COVER PAGE
FOREWORD
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
PART II
Chapter 5
PART Ill
Chapter 6
Appendix 1
Appendix 2