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Circular 292
Economic Contribution of Civil Aviation
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Orders should be sent to one of the following addresses, together with the appropriate remittance by bank draft, cheque or money orderin U.S. dollars or the currency of the country in which the order is placed. Credit card orders American Express, MasterCard and Visaare accepted at ICAO Headquarters.International Civil Aviation Organization. Attention Document Sales Unit, 999 University Street, Montral, Quebec, Canada H3C 5H7Telephone 1 514 954-8022 Facsimile 1 514 954-6769 Sitatex YULCAYA E-mail salesicao.intWorld Wide Web http//www.icao.intCameroon. KnowHow, 1, Rue de la Chambre de Commerce-Bonanjo, B.P. 4676, Douala / Telephone 237 343 98 42 Facsimile2373438925 E-mail knowhowdocyahoo.frChina. Glory Master International Limited, Room 434B, Hongshen Trade Centre, 428 Dong Fang Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200120Telephone 86 137 0177 4638 Facsimile 86 21 5888 1629 E-mail glorymasteronline.sh.cnEgypt. ICAO Regional Director, Middle East Office, Egyptian Civil Aviation Complex, Cairo Airport Road, Heliopolis, Cairo 11776Telephone 20 2 267 4840 Facsimile 20 2 267 4843 Sitatex CAICAYA E-mail icaomidcairo.icao.intFrance. Directeur rgional de lOACI, Bureau Europe et Atlantique Nord, 3 bis, villa mile-Bergerat, 92522 Neuilly-sur-Seine Cedex Tlphone 33 1 46 41 85 85 Fax 33 1 46 41 85 00 Sitatex PAREUYA Courriel icaoeurnatparis.icao.intGermany. UNO-Verlag GmbH, August-Bebel-Allee 6, 53175 Bonn / Telephone 49 0 228-94 90 2-0 Facsimile 49 0 228-94 90 2-22E-mailinfouno-verlag.de World Wide Web http//www.uno-verlag.deIndia. Oxford Book and Stationery Co., Scindia House, New Delhi 110001 or 17 Park Street, Calcutta 700016Telephone 91 11 331-5896 Facsimile 91 11 51514284India. Sterling Book House SBH, 181, Dr. D. N. Road, Fort, Bombay 400001Telephone 91 22 2261 2521, 2265 9599 Facsimile 91 22 2262 3551 E-mail sbhvsnl.comJapan. Japan Civil Aviation Promotion Foundation, 15-12, 1-chome, Toranomon, Minato-Ku, TokyoTelephone 81 3 3503-2686 Facsimile 81 3 3503-2689Kenya. ICAO Regional Director, Eastern and Southern African Office, United Nations Accommodation, P.O. Box 46294, Nairobi Telephone 254 20 622 395 Facsimile 254 20 623 028 Sitatex NBOCAYA E-mail icaoicao.unon.orgMexico. Director Regional de la OACI, Oficina Norteamrica, Centroamrica y Caribe, Av. Presidente Masaryk No. 29, 3er Piso,Col. Chapultepec Morales, C.P. 11570, Mxico D.F. / Telfono 52 55 52 50 32 11 Facsmile 52 55 52 03 27 57 Correo-e icaonaccmexico.icao.intNigeria. Landover Company, P.O. Box 3165, Ikeja, LagosTelephone 234 1 4979780 Facsimile 234 1 4979788 Sitatex LOSLORK E-mail aviationlandovercompany.comPeru. Director Regional de la OACI, Oficina Sudamrica, Apartado 4127, Lima 100Telfono 51 1 575 1646 Facsmile 51 1 575 0974 Sitatex LIMCAYA Correo-e maillima.icao.intRussian Federation. Aviaizdat, 48, Ivan Franko Street, Moscow 121351 / Telephone 7 095 417-0405 Facsimile 7 095 417-0254Senegal. Directeur rgional de lOACI, Bureau Afrique occidentale et centrale, Bote postale 2356, DakarTlphone 221 839 9393 Fax 221 823 6926 Sitatex DKRCAYA Courriel icaodkricao.snSlovakia. Air Traffic Services of the Slovak Republic, Letov prevdzkov sluzby Slovenskej Republiky, State Enterprise, Letisko M.R. Stefnika, 823 07 Bratislava 21 / Telephone 421 7 4857 1111 Facsimile 421 7 4857 2105South Africa. Avex Air Training Pty Ltd., Private Bag X102, Halfway House, 1685, JohannesburgTelephone 27 11 315-0003/4 Facsimile 27 11 805-3649 E-mail avexiafrica.comSpain. A.E.N.A. Aeropuertos Espaoles y Navegacin Area, Calle Juan Ignacio Luca de Tena, 14, Planta Tercera, Despacho 3. 11,28027 Madrid / Telfono34 91 321-3148 Facsmile 34 91 321-3157 Correo-e sscc.ventasoaciaena.esSwitzerland. Adeco-Editions van Diermen, Attn Mr. Martin Richard Van Diermen, Chemin du Lacuez 41, CH-1807 BlonayTelephone 41 021 943 2673 Facsimile 41 021 943 3605 E-mail mvandiermenadeco.orgThailand. ICAO Regional Director, Asia and Pacific Office, P.O. Box 11, Samyaek Ladprao, Bangkok 10901Telephone 66 2 537 8189 Facsimile 66 2 537 8199 Sitatex BKKCAYA E-mail icaoapacbangkok.icao.intUnited Kingdom. Airplan Flight Equipment Ltd. AFE, 1a Ringway Trading Estate, Shadowmoss Road, Manchester M22 5LHTelephone 44 161 499 0023 Facsimile 44 161 499 0298 E-mail enquiriesafeonline.com World Wide Web http//www.afeonline.comCatalogue of ICAO Publicationsand Audio-visual Training AidsIssued annually, the Catalogue lists all publications and audio-visual training aids currently available. Supplements to the Catalogue announce new publications and audio-visual training aids, amendments, supplements, reprints, etc.Available free from the Document Sales Unit, ICAO.11/05Published in English only by the International Civil Aviation Organization. All correspondence, except orders andsubscriptions, should be addressed to the Secretary General.
i FOREWORD 1, This circular consists of Volume I Global Perspective and Volume II Assessment Methodologies. ICAOs evaluation of the economic contribution of civil aviation has been carried out with two objectives, namely to assess the contribution of civil aviation to the global economy and to develop guidance material for States on assessment methodologies. Volume I portrays the importance of civil aviation in the global economy with its direct economic contribution and multiplier effects and emphasizes civil aviations role as a catalyst in the global economy. It presents the results of a detailed study of the economic contribution of civil aviation in terms of global output and employment, followed by a profile of the major contributing civil aviation industries. Volume II contains methodological guidelines on how to assess the economic contribution both of an airport to a regional/national economy and of civil aviation to a national economy. Two principal methodological approaches to an impact assessment are introduced a core approach and an expanded approach. For both approaches, case studies of impact assessments of airports and a national economy demonstrate the assessment process and results. 2. This study is intended to assist planners and decision-makers to identify the economic contribution of civil aviation, which can serve as an instrument to justify funding requirements for the continuous development of infrastructure and other needs of civil aviation industries. Sources of information 3. In addition to the ICAO Digests of Statistics, research has been undertaken to enhance the Organizations statistics on, and economic evaluation of, civil aviation. Sources of information, other than ICAO, referred to in this circular include the United Nations UN, the World Tourism Organization WTO-OMT, the International Monetary Fund IMF, the World Bank, the Airports Council International ACI, the Air Transport Action Group ATAG, the International Air Transport Association IATA, the World Travel and Tourism Council WTTC, aerospace manufacturers, airports and other corporate information as well as various air transport periodicals, Back Aviation Solutions, the WEFA Group formerly known as Wharton Econometrics Forecasting Associates, Wilbur Smith Associates, the City of Hamburg Ministry of Economic Affairs, the City of Los Angeles Department of Airports, the Colorado Department of Transportation, the Mediation Group Frankfurt Airport, Statistics Canada, the United States Department of Transportation DOT and Department of Commerce DOC. 4. Unless indicated otherwise, all references in this circular to cents mean U.S. cents, and all references to dollars mean U.S. dollars references to billion mean one thousand million. Status 5. This circular has been approved by the Secretary General and is published under his authority.
iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page FOREWORD.......................................................................................................................................... i EXECUTIVE SUMMARY........................................................................................................................ English........................................................................................................................................... E ix French............................................................................................................................................ F ix Spanish.......................................................................................................................................... S ix Russian.......................................................................................................................................... R ix Arabic............................................................................................................................................. A ix Chinese.......................................................................................................................................... C ix VOLUME I GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Chapter 1. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND AIR SERVICES ...................................................... I-1-1 Air Transport Services as an Economic Catalyst ......................................................................... I-1-1 Air Travel....................................................................................................................................... I-1-3 Air Freight...................................................................................................................................... I-1-7 Chapter 2. ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF CIVIL AVIATION........................................................ I-2-1 Global Direct Contribution and Multiplier Effects .......................................................................... I-2-1 Direct Economic Contribution.................................................................................................... I-2-1 Multiplier Effects........................................................................................................................ I-2-4 Major Civil Aviation Industries....................................................................................................... I-2-8 Airline Industry and Affiliates..................................................................................................... I-2-8 Airport Industry and Affiliates.................................................................................................... I-2-15 Aerospace Industry and Affiliates ............................................................................................. I-2-19 VOLUME II ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES PART I ECONOMIC IMPACT OF AN AIRPORT.............................................................................. II-i Chapter 1. IMPACT ASSESSMENT CORE APPROACH.............................................................. II-1-1 Assessment by Input-Output Analyses ........................................................................................ II-1-1 Definition and Interface of Demand Effects.............................................................................. II-1-1 Direct Demand Effects.............................................................................................................. II-1-3 Indirect Demand Effects............................................................................................................ II-1-8 Induced Demand Effects........................................................................................................... II-1-11 Total Demand Effects................................................................................................................ II-1-11
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Table Of Contents
COVER PAGE
FOREWORD
TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
VOLUME I
CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 2
VOLUME II
PART I
CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 2
PART II
CHAPTER 3
CHAPTER 4
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B
APPENDIX C
APPENDIX D