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Circular 218
Economic Implications of Future Noise Restrictions on Subsonic Jet Aircraft
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CIRCULAR ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF FUTURE NOISE RESTRICTIONS ON SUBSONIC JET AIRCRAFT Prepared by the Secretary General and published by decision of the Council INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION MONTREAL CANADA
Published in separate English, French, Russian and Spanish editions by the International Civil Aviation Organization. AN correspondence, except orders and subscriptions, should be addressed to the Secretary General. Orders for this publication should be sent to one of the following addresses, together with the appropriate remittance by bank draft or post office money order in U.S. dollars or the currency of the country in which the order is placed. Document Sales Unit International Civil Aviation Organization 1000 Sherbrooke Street West, Suite 400 Montreal, Quebec Canada H3A 2R2 Egypt. ICAO Representative, Middle East Office, 16 Hassan Sabri, Zamalek, Cairo. France. Reprkntant de I'OACI, Bureau Europe, 3 bis, villa fimile-ergerat, 92522 Neuilly-sur-Seine Cedex. India. Oxford Book and Stationery Co., Scindia House, New Delhi - or 17 Park Street, Calcutta. Japan. Japan Civil Aviation Promotion Foundation, 15-12, 1-chome, Toranomon, Minato-Ku, Tokyo. Kenya. ICAO Representative,-Eastern and Southern African Office. United Nations Accommodation, P.O. Box 46294 Nairobi. Mexico. Representante de la OACI, Oficina Norteamkrica, CentroamCrica y Caribe, Apartado postal 5-377, C.P. 11590, Mkxico 5, D.F. Peru. Representante de la OACI, Oficina Sudamkrica, Apartado 4127, Lima 100. Senegal. ReprCsentant de I'OACI, Bureau Afrique occidentale et centrale, Boite postale 2356, Dakar. Spain. Pilot's, Suministros Aeronhuticos, S.A., C/Ulises, 5-Oficina Num. 2, 28043 Madrid. Thailand. ICAO Representative, Asia and Pacific Office, P.O. Box 614, Bangkok. United Kingdom. Civil Aviation Authority, Printing and Publications Services, Greville House, 37 Gratton Road, Cheltenham, Glos., GLSO 2BN. Do you receive the ICAO BULLETIN The ICAO Bulletin contains a concise account of the activities of the Organization as well as articles of interest to the aeronautical world. The Bulletin will also keep you up to date on the latest ICAO publications, their contents, amendments, supplements, corrigenda and prices. Available in three separate editions English, French and Spanish. Annual subscription U.S.820.00 surface mail U.S.25.00 air mail.
Table of Contents Page Glossary of Terms .......................................................................... 1 Chapter 1 . Introduction .................................................................... 3 Chapter 2 . Scope of Study ................................................................. 5 Chapter 3 . Main Findings .................................................................. 7 ........................................................... Chapter 4 . Environmental Impact 11 Chapter 5 . Fleet and Traffic Without New Noise Restrictions ................................... 14 Chapter 6 . Numbers of Aircraft Affected by Hypothetical Future Noise Restrictions .............. 21 Chapter 7 . Economic Impact on Carriers of Hypothetical Future Noise Restrictions ............... 25 Chapter 8 . Impact by Geographical Area on Carriers from Areas where Further Noise Restrictions ....................................................................... are not Anticipated 31 .......................................... Appendix 1 . Detailed Methodology and Assumptions 51 Appendix 2 . States and Territories in the Nonrestricted Areas ................................... 57
Glossary of Terms Non-noise certificated NNC aircraft. A subsonic jet aircraft which has not been certificated to meet the noise level requirements prescribed in ICAO Annex 16, Volume I, Chapter 2 or 3. Chapter 2 aircraft. A subsonic jet aircraft which has been certificated to meet the noise level requirements prescribed in ICAO Annex 16, Volume I, Chapter 2, but does not meet the requirements of ICAO Annex 16, Volume I, Chapter 3 Chapter 2 is equivalent to Stage 2 under United States regulations. Chapter 3 aircraft. A subsonic jet aircraft which has been certificated to meet the noise level requirements prescribed in ICAO Annex 16, Volume I, Chapter 3 Chapter 3 is equivalent to Stage 3 under United States regulations. Non-compliant aircraft. A subsonic jet aircraft which does not meet the noise level requirements prescribed in ICAO Annex 16, Volume I, Chapter 3 this includes all NNC and Chapter 2 aircraft. Hushkitting, re-engining and retrofitting. Hushkitting means modifying aircraft engines with sound absorbing material, changing exhaust mix nozzles, and/or making other mechanical changes to reduce noise emissions. Re- engining means replacement of noisy versions of older engines with new quieter often more fuel efficient versions or with a new type of engine. Retrofitting means modification of the airframe and/or engine which could include either hushkitting or re-engining, or both. Noise-restricted areas. Geographical areas covering States which are assumed for the purpose of this study will implement operating restrictions on aircraft which do not meet the noise level requirements of ICAO Annex 16, Volume I, Chapter 3 - Australia, Japan, New Zealand - the 22 Member States of the European Civil Aviation Conference ECAC - United States. Non-restricted areas. Geographical areas covering States which are assumed for the purpose of this study will not implement operating restrictions on aircraft which do not meet the noise level requirements of ICAO Annex 16, Volume I, Chapter 3. For analytical purposes the States concerned have been divided into eight groups on the basis of their proximity to noise-restricted areas, the traffic patterns of their air carriers in relation to noise-restricted areas, and the subregional divisions used in the ICAO regional air transport studies - Canada - Mexico/Central America/Caribbean - South America - Eastern Europe including USSR - Middle East - Northern Africa - Western/Central/Eastern/Southern Africa - Asia/Pacific less Australia, Japan and New Zealand. The States included in each of the subregions concerned are listed in Appendix 2.
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Table Of Contents
COVER PAGE
Table of Contents
Glossary of Terms
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Appendix 1
Appendix 2