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Doc 9863. Edition 3
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Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) Manual
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Approved by and published under the authority of the Secretary GeneralINTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATIONDoc 9863Airborne Collision Avoidance SystemACAS ManualThird Edition, 2021
Approved by and published under the authority of the Secretary GeneralINTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATIONDoc 9863Airborne Collision Avoidance SystemACAS ManualThird Edition, 2021
Published in separate English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish editions by the INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION 999 Robert-Bourassa Boulevard, Montral, Quebec, Canada H3C 5H7 For ordering information and for a complete listing of sales agents and booksellers, please go to the ICAO website at www.icao.int First edition 2006 Second edition 2012 Third edition 2021 Doc 9863, Airborne Collision Avoidance System ACAS Manual Order Number 9863 ISBN 978-92-9265-423-8 ICAO 2021 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, without prior permission in writing from the International Civil Aviation Organization.
iii AMENDMENTS Amendments are announced in the supplements to the Products and Services Catalogue the Catalogue and its supplements are available on the ICAO website at www.icao.int. The space below is provided to keep a record of such amendments. RECORD OF AMENDMENTS AND CORRIGENDA AMENDMENTS CORRIGENDA No. Date Entered by No. Date Entered by
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Table Of Contents
COVER PAGE
AMENDMENTS
FOREWORD
TABLE OF CONTENTS
GLOSSARY
1.1 PURPOSE
1.2 SCOPE AND CONTENT
Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF ACAS
1.4 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.6 ACAS I AND ACAS III
1.5 DESIGN INTENTION OF ACAS II
2.2 RESPONSIBILITIES
Chapter 2. IMPLEMENTATION OF ACAS
2.1 ICAO IMPLEMENTATION REQUIREMENTS
2.3 RELATED DOCUMENTS
2.4 ACAS MANUFACTURERS
3.2 ADVISORIES PROVIDED
Chapter 3. FUNCTIONS AND CAPABILITIES
3.1 GENERAL
3.3 INTRUDER CHARACTERISTICS
3.4 CONTROL OF INTERFERENCE TO THEELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT
3.5 FACTORS AFFECTING SYSTEM PERFORMANCEOF ACTIVE INTERROGATIONS
3.6 SYSTEM OPERATION
3.7 TRANSMITTER
3.8 ANTENNAS
3.9 RECEIVER AND PROCESSOR
3.10 COLLISION AVOIDANCE ALGORITHMS
3.11 COMPATIBILITY WITH ON-BOARD MODE S TRANSPONDERS
3.12 INDICATIONS TO THE FLIGHT CREW
3.13 CREW CONTROL FUNCTIONS
3.15 TYPICAL ALGORITHMS AND PARAMETERSFOR THREAT DETECTIONAND GENERATION OF ADVISORIES (TCAS V7.1)
3.14 BUILT-IN TEST EQUIPMENT
3.16 ACAS II USE OF HYBRIDSURVEILLANCE TECHNIQUES
3.17 PERFORMANCE OF THE COLLISION AVOIDANCE LOGIC
3.18 TYPICAL VISUAL AND AURALINDICATIONS TO THE FLIGHT CREW
3.19 CONTROLS
3.20 STATUS AND FAILURE ANNUNCIATIONS
3.21 ACAS LIMITATIONS
3.22 ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONALITY
Chapter 4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACAS PERFORMANCE,SAFETY AND AIRSPACE CONFIGURATION
4.1 ASSUMPTIONS REGARDING AIRSPACE CONFIGURATIONAND OPERATION INCLUDED IN ACAS
4.2 INDEPENDENCE OF ACAS ALERTING CRITERIA FROMATC SEPARATION STANDARDS
4.3 EFFECTS OF CLOSELY-SPACEDAIRCRAFT ON ACAS PERFORMANCE
4.4 AIRSPACE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
5.1 GENERAL
5.2 ACAS OPERATIONAL USE
Chapter 5. OPERATIONAL USE AND PILOT TRAINING GUIDELINES
5.3 PILOT TRAINING
5.4 FINDINGS FROM REVIEWS OF EXISTING TRAINING PROGRAMMES
5.5 EXAMPLES OF PROBLEM ENCOUNTERS
5.6 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TCAS II V7.1 COMPLIANT SYSTEMSAND ACAS X COMPLIANT SYSTEMS OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE
Chapter 6. CONTROLLER TRAINING GUIDELINES
6.1 OBJECTIVE
6.2 ACAS TRAINING PROGRAMMES
6.3 RECOMMENDED CONTENT OFCONTROLLER TRAINING PROGRAMMES
Chapter 7. SPECIAL USES OF ACAS
7.1 MILITARY USES OF ACAS IN FORMATION OPERATIONS
7.2 ACAS INSTALLATIONS ON ROTARY WING AIRCRAFT
7.3 ACAS INSTALLATIONS ON REMOTELY PILOTED AIRCRAFT (RPA)
Chapter 8. SAFETY AND ELECTROMAGNETICENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS
8.1 SAFETY ASSESSMENT
8.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT
Chapter 9. ACAS PERFORMANCE MONITORING
9.1 NEED FOR ACAS MONITORING PROGRAMMES
9.2 MONITORING PROGRAMME OBJECTIVES
9.3 DESCRIPTION OF CURRENT MONITORINGPROGRAMMES’ DATA SOURCES
9.4 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS
9.5 PRODUCTS OF MONITORINGAND ANALYSES PROGRAMMES
9.6 HARMONIZATION OF MONITORING DATA
9.7 RECOMMENDED ACAS PROBLEM REVIEW PROCESS
9.8 EXAMPLE OF A COMPREHENSIVE ACASMONITOR SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
Chapter 10. ACAS-RELATED TRANSPONDERPERFORMANCE MONITORING
10.1 NEED FOR TRANSPONDER MONITORING PROGRAMMES
10.2 TRANSPONDER ISSUES AND THEIR IMPACT ON ACAS
10.3 ALTIMETRY DATA QUALITY
10.4 ACAS AND TRANSPONDER TEST EQUIPMENT
Chapter 11. CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONAL APPROVALS
11.1 BASIS FOR EXISTING EQUIPMENTAND INSTALLATION CERTIFICATION
11.2 OPERATIONAL APPROVALS
11.3 CERTIFICATION AND APPROVAL OF MILITARY SYSTEMS
Appendix A. SAMPLE PILOT REPORT, ACAS EVENT FORM
Appendix B. SAMPLE CONTROLLER REPORT, ACAS EVENT FORM
Appendix C. RECOMMENDED LIST OF ITEMS TO BE INCLUDEDON PILOT REPORT FORM
Appendix D. RECOMMENDED LIST OF ITEMS TO BE INCLUDEDON CONTROLLER REPORT FORM
Appendix E. RECOMMENDED LIST OF DATA TO BE PROVIDEDBY DEDICATED ACAS RECORDERS
Appendix F. LIST OF DEFINITIONS USEDBY MONITORING PROGRAMMES
Appendix G. ADVICE CONCERNING THE INTERCEPTIONOF CIVIL AIRCRAFT
Appendix H. DESCRIPTION OF RA REPORT INTERPRETATIONFOR DIFFERENT ACAS VERSIONS