CIRCULAR 217-AN/1321989HUMAN FACTORS DIGESTNO. 2FLIGHT CREW TRAININGCOCKPIT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT CRMANDLINE-ORIENTED FLIGHT TRAINING LOFTApproved by the Secretary Generaland published under his authorityI C A OCIRCULARINTERNATIONALCIVIL AVIATIONORGANIZATIONMONTREALCANADA
iFOREWORD1.Flight safety is one of the major objectives of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Considerableprogress has been made but additional improvements are needed and can be achieved. It has long beenknown that some three out of four accidents result from less than optimum human performance and thisindicates that any advance in this field will have a significant impact on the improvement of flight safety.2.This was recognized by the ICAO Assembly which adopted in 1986 Resolution A26-9 on Flight Safetyand Human Factors. As a follow-up to the Assembly Resolution, the Air Navigation Commission formulatedthe following objective for the task"To improve safety in aviation by making States more aware and responsive to the importanceof human factors in civil aviation operations through the provision of practical human factorsmaterial and measures developed on the basis of experience in States."3.One of the methods chosen to implement Assembly Resolution A26-9 is the publication of a series ofDigests which will address various aspects of Human Factors technology and their impact on flight safety.Digest No. 1 concerns fundamental Human Factors concepts and provides an overview of the variouscomponents which constitute the technology of Human Factors it is intended primarily for use by States, toincrease their awareness of the influence of Human Factors in flight safety and assist them in determininggeneral solutions to Human Factors problems it can also be used as supporting material for educationalprogrammes on Human Factors conducted by States, aircraft operators, etc.4.This Digest is concerned principally with Cockpit Resource Management CRM however, since thepreferred training vehicle for CRM training is a line-oriented flight training LOFT scenario, a description ofLOFT is also included.5.Other planned Digests have the following working titlesDigest No. 3Training of Operational Personnel in Human Performance and LimitationsDigest No. 4The Use of Human Factors in Personnel SelectionDigest No. 5Ergonomics and Automation6.The ICAO Secretariat will endeavour to assist States with requests for additional information on thedocumentation available from various sources, on research undertaken by other States, and on the assistancewhich can be provided by institutions or individuals.7.This Digest does not provide all the answers to the question of CRM training. Certainly it would not bepossible for a State or an operator to introduce CRM only on the basis of the information presented. However,it is hoped that this Digest will demonstrate the advantages of CRM training as perceived by those who useit.
iiICAO Circular 217-AN/1328.Many of the insights in this digest have been gleaned from the extensive Human Factors researchcarried out at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Ames Research Centre in the UnitedStates. Information from various airlines as well as from IATA and IFALPA has also been used.9.This digest was produced with the assistance of the ICAO Flight Safety and Human Factors HF StudyGroup.