Language
RUEN
ES
FR
AR
CH
Login
RUEN
ES
FR
AR
CH
Circular 234
Human Factors Digest No. 5 - Operational Implications of Automation in Advanced Technology Flight Decks
Buy access
INFO
Text
Editions
Modifications
Links To
Links From
In Catalogs
search
CIRCULAR 234-AN/1421992HUMAN FACTORS DIGESTNo. 5OPERATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF AUTOMATIONIN ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FLIGHT DECKSApproved by the Secretary Generaland published under his authorityI C A OCIRCULARINTERNATIONALCIVIL AVIATIONORGANIZATIONMONTREALCANADA
iTABLE OF CONTENTSPageIntroduction.............................................................. 1Chapter 1. An Introduction to Automation....................................... 3Chapter 2. Issues and Concerns in Automation................................. 11Chapter 3. Training for Automation........................................... 20Chapter 4. Management Techniques and Coping Strategies....................... 27Appendix 1. Field studies in automation....................................... 30Appendix 2. Automation principles from Wiener and Curry 1980.................. 36Appendix 3. Statement of automation philosophy, Delta Air Lines 1990............. 38Appendix 4. Recommended reading.......................................... 39
1INTRODUCTION1.This digest presents the Human Factors implications of automation and advanced technologyflight decks. The purpose of the digest is to identify operational and training issues, and to provide anunderstanding of the problems in the interface between humans and automation, with emphasis on the wayin which automation affects human performance. It is primarily directed to training managers and operationalpersonnel, but pilots and other operational personnel will also benefit from this digest, as will regulatoryauthorities.2.This digest has an operational orientation, and it does not address issues of equipment designand certification. A special digest on flight deck and systems design will be published later, and it is expectedthat these two digests will contribute to the understanding of the problems faced by operational personnelwhen new technology is introduced.3.Automation has been gradually introduced in flight decks and in the aviation system overtime. Flight deck automation has made aircraft operations safer and more efficient a one per cent reductionin fuel consumption translates into annual savings of 100 000 000 for the IATA carriers of one particularState by ensuring more precise flight manoeuvres, providing display flexibility, and optimising cockpit space.In the interest of flight safety, however, this digest focuses on actual and potential problems and issues. Thisis because of the need to define and understand these problems, and it is not intended to be a reflection onthe technology itself. To keep a proper perspective, it must be unequivocally stated that, in the long run, thebenefits of automation far outweigh the problems.4.Although there is still no international consensus regarding the proper use of automation, thereis no question that the reduction in accidents related to human error can, in part, be explained by theintroduction of automation on the flight deck. However, the record also shows that failures of automaticequipment, and, more frequently, mismatches at the human-equipment interface, remain as crucial links inthe causal chain of accidents and incidents.5.One of the reasons for the introduction of automation was the elimination of human error. Sofar, it has been successful in the elimination of certain type of errors. But in other cases, what has takenplace is a displacement of error. Experience indicates that while automation may eliminate small errors, itmay increase the potential for large errors. These are examples of the messages which this digest attemptsto convey.6.This digest comprises the followingChapter 1 presents the history of automation in aviation, proposes a definition ofautomation, addresses the evolutionary nature of automation, and stresses the need foran automation philosophy.Chapter 2 addresses some of the problems of automation and illustrates what worked andwhat did not with regard to the expectations for automation.Chapter 3 refers to the training of operational personnel with special emphasis on flightcrew training.
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
Table Of Contents
COVER PAGE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3
Appendix 4