Language
RUEN
ES
FR
AR
CH
Login
RUEN
ES
FR
AR
CH
Circular 238
Human Factors Digest No. 6 - Ergonomics
Buy access
INFO
Text
Editions
Modifications
Links To
Links From
In Catalogs
search
CIRCULAR CIRCULAR 238-AN1143 HUMAN FACTORS DIGEST No. 6 INTERNATIONA CIVIL AVIATtO ORGANIZATIO MONTREAL CAMAD ERGONOMICS Approved by the Secretary General and published under his authority
Published in separate English, French, Russian and Spanish editions by the International Civil Aviation Organitation. All corresponderice, except orders and subscritions, should Be addressed to the Secretary General. Ordcrs br this publication should be sent lo one of the Following addresses, togctkr.with the appropriate remit- by 'bank draft, cheque or money order in US. dollars or the currency of the country in which the order is placed. Document Sales Unit International Civil Aviation Organimtion 1000 Sherbroake Street West, Suite 400 Montreal, Qukc Canada H3A 2R2 Tel. 514 285-821 9 Telex 05-245 13 . Fax 5 14 288-4772 Sitx YULCAYA Credit card orders Visa or American Express only are accepted at the above address. Egypt, ICAO Representative, Middle East Office. 9 Shagaret El Don Street, Zamalek 1 12 1 1, Cairo. Fmnce. Repntanl de I"DACI, Bureau Europe el Atlantique Nwd, 3 bis, villa lrnile-krgemi, 92522 Neuil ty-sur-Scinc Cedex, India. Oxford Rmk and Stationcry Co., Scindia Hwse, New Delbi or I 7 Park Street, Calcutta. Japan. Japm Civil Aviation Promotion Foundation, 15-1 2, I -chorne. Toranomon, Minato-Ku. Tokya Kenya. TCAO Rcpresentativc, Eastern and Southern African Office. United Nations Accornmodion, P.O. Box 86294, Nairobi. Mexico. Rcprcwntantc de la OACI. Oficinil Noreamkrica. Ccntroamkrica y Caribe. Ap postal 5-377, C.P. 06300. Mxico, D.F. Peru. Represenmnte de la OACI, Oficina Sudarntrica, Apmtado 4 127. Lima 100. Senegnl. Repdsenlant de I'OACI, Bureau Arriquc occidenle et centralc, Boite stalc 2356, Dakar. SNn. Pilot's, Surninistrs AemnAuticos. S.A., ClUlisa, 5-Oficina Nbm. 2,28043 Madrid. Thriilund. ICAO Represcnlative, Asia and Pacific Oficc, P-0. Box 1 1, Samyaek Ladprao. Bangkok 10901. Uniied Kiagdotn. Civil Aviation Authorily, Printing and Publications Services, Greville House, 37 Gntton Road. Cheltenham, Glos., GL50 2BN. The Catalogue of ICAO Publications and Audio Visual Training Aids Issued annually, the Catalogue lists all publications and audio visual training aids currently available. Monthly supplements announce new publications and audio visual training aids, amendments, supplements, reprints, etc. Available free from the Document Sales Unit, ICAO
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introduction .................................................... f Chapter 1 . Basic Facts about Ergonomics ............................. 3 Introduction .................................................. 3 A Model of Human Factors ...................................... 3 . A Systems Approach to Safety ..................................... 6 Control of Human Error ......................................... 8 Chapter 2 . Human Capabilities ...................................... tO The Visual System ..... ...................................... 10 The Vocal and Auditory Systems .................................. 13 Human Information Processing ................................... 14 Human Dimensions ................................... ........ 17 Chapter 3 . Displays. Controls and Flight Deck Design .................... 19 Displays .................................................... 19 Auditory. Caution and Warning ACW Systems ....................... 22 Controls ..................................................... 23 Chapter 4 . The Environment ......................................... 35 Noise ...................................................... 36 Temperature ................................................. 37 Humidity .................................................... 37 Pressure ..................................................... 37 Illumination ................................................... 38 Vibration ..................................................... 38 Appendix 1 . Ergonomic Properties of the Human-machine System One State's Approach to Ergonomics ............................... 39 Appendix 2 . Flight Safety Ergonomics System as Adopted by ................................................... OneState 4'1 . Appendix 3 List d Recommended Readings ............................. 43
1. Ergonomics has been applied in the design of tools, even in an elementasy way, since the beginning of civilization. in aviation, the focus in the early pioneering days - and for many years fiewards - was on advancing some general principles to guide the design of tligM deck displays and controls. This later broadened into the experimental analysis of the design and layout of equipment, in close association with the analysis of the demands and workload that the equipment and tasks imposed upon the human operator. Today's approach to design takes the user's characteristics capabilities, limitations, and needs into conside- ration early on in the system development process, and subordinates engineering convenience to them. The terms "user-friendly" and "error tolerant1', referring to modern equipment, reflect this intent. 2. It cannot be denied that technological progress has occurred, nor that such progress has enhanced flight safety, but operational experience indicates that human error is still induced to a significant extent by shortcomings in equipment design or in the procedures used to operate the equipment. Only by taking into account appropriate Human Factors considerations in system design can safety be further enhanced. It would be misleading, however, to propose that safety in the system can be achieved through design improvement alone a systems approach to aviation safety is required. 3. This digest addresses Human Factors issues relative to the'interface between humans and machines in aviation. This interface has traditionally been viewed aP presenting simple knobs and dials" solutions to Human Factors problems. in sume cases, these solutions could be found by looking at the appro- priate table, but an understanding of how to solve Human Factors problems with respect to the human- machine interface within the aviation system is more than learning how to look at tables, especially since such simple solutions may not be valid for all situations. 4. The purpose of this digest is to increase the awareness of the pervasiveness and influence of ergonomics in aviation safety. It is intended to provide basic knowledge - as well as a source of information -which will enable the reader to call upon the proper expertise when so required. It also intends to convey, in simple language, the current state-of-the-art information available from States,-and to encourage the use of available education and training. The target audience ,comprises a wide range of individuals and organizations in the aviation community who may not have much knowledge of ergonomics. 5. This digest draws in many areas from ICAO Digest No. 1 - Fundamental Human Factom Comepts Circular 2161, which ideally should be read first. Since this may not always be possible, some overlap will be found between these two digests. For physiological and medical subject matters, the source of reference is the ICAO Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine Doc 8984. 6. This digest cumprises the following Chapter 1 presents the basic facts about ergonomics, including the difference between ergonomics and Human Factors. Chapter 2 discusses human capabilities that should be taken into account in equipment design. Chapter 3 discusses the design of dispbrys and controls, and how they are integrated into the flight deck.
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
EXAMPLETo access full book mail to icao@standart.aero or login
Table Of Contents
COVER PAGE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRO
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3