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Circular 241
Human Factors Digest No. 8 - Human Factors in Air Traffic Control
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CIRCULAR 241-AN/1451993HUMAN FACTORS DIGESTNo. 8HUMAN FACTORS INAIR TRAFFIC CONTROLApproved by the Secretary Generaland published under his authorityI C A OCIRCULARINTERNATIONALCIVIL AVIATIONORGANIZATIONMONTREALCANADA
iTABLE OF CONTENTSPage Introduction................................................................1Chapter 1. The Evolution of Air Traffic Control...................................3Human Factors within systems............................................3Matching human and machine............................................3The SHEL Model.......................................................4The evolution of air traffic control..........................................5The future of air traffic control.............................................6Transfer of information..................................................7Chapter 2. The Controllers Workspace.........................................8Application of ergonomic data............................................8Buildings.............................................................8Room layout..........................................................8Suites...............................................................9Towers..............................................................10Console profile........................................................10Anthropometry........................................................10Layout and responsibilities...............................................12The physical environment................................................12Visual displays........................................................14Input devices..........................................................15Minimum acceptable conditions...........................................16Communications.......................................................16Controller proficiency...................................................17Classes of information..................................................18Chapter 3. Automation in Air Traffic Control.....................................20Full or partial automation................................................20Reasons for automation.................................................20Goals of automation....................................................21Constraints...........................................................22The application of automation............................................23Further implications of automation.........................................24Team functions........................................................25Standardization........................................................26Human-machine interface and human error.................................26
iiICAO Circular 241-AN/145Page Chapter 4. The Selection and Training of Air Traffic Controllers....................28Selection of applicants..................................................28Tests................................................................28Other data............................................................29Training..............................................................29Training content and teaching............................................30Aspects of training.....................................................31Training and system changes.............................................32Chapter 5. The Human Element Specific Attributes.............................34Recognition of their significance...........................................34Stress...............................................................34Boredom.............................................................35Confidence and complacency............................................36Error prevention.......................................................36Fatigue..............................................................37Needs at work.........................................................38Attitudes.............................................................38Functions of teams.....................................................39Individual differences...................................................39A general Human Factors view...........................................40Appendix. List of Recommended Reading.........................................41
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Table Of Contents
COVER PAGE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Appendix