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Circular 97
Circular 97 Air Freight - Europe-Mediterranean Region
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CIRCULAR AIR FREIGHT EUROPE-MEDITERRANEAN REGION Prspaad by the SccuetariAt and issued undw the direction of the Council f ICAB INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVlATlON ORGANlXATlON MONTREAL CANADA
Publiskd im stpara English, Fvgtack md Spaaish edifiom y t Lw Iferfia'riufial Civil A fifIon Orgunizafian, AIJ ewespmdene, etepl drakrs dnd ubkcripr Fans, SPU be uddwssed to the Sewlrpry GPWIEI of ICA 0, Jfteuionul Aviation Buildng, 1080 ZIh E vksity Sirst, Mmtredtl 101, 'MZEC, Ctnwdu. Cwqw DeMemmt d Public Prinkha and SSatioa efx taw .0nBri6 3. France Wepriswtao t de l'Ok1, hmu EUOW ylh, vib ERI-BZR Neo3lly- lrschke CinJ, Japan Japan Civil AvMm Prumofioq F'qurtdation, Hp. 3 Sba Kotahira-chg, MIIARI, Takyo. Thailand fC40 Rmrmntativa, Far East d Pacific Ow, P.U. Box 614, Bangkok, Do you receive the ICAO BULLETIN The ICAO hlktit cantoins u caneis accou of the actjvitjes af the rgaizuon as dI us articles of infetest 0 the osro- tiuticl wodd, Th Bulletin will n/sa hap you up to dote on the lam IcAO publieian, fhir canten fa, amendments stipplbmbnfs, tbrri- geilda, and pries. Aailbtble in three LpAnitB edStPens English, French and Spafiish. Annual auhs-cigtion U.S. ,n.Q.
TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 . INTRODUCTION Page 1 .............................. Background ........................ Terms of reference Sources of information and method of work ............ Terminology and comparability of data .............. ............................ Presentation 2 - SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ........... The role of air freight in international trade ................. Development of air freight traffic ................ Features of the air freight business Facilitation aspects of air cargo. including cargo handling ... Economics of air cargo operations ................ Prospects ............................. Some problems related to the development of international air freight ............................ General references ........................ 3 . THE ROLE OF AIR FREIGHT IN ZNTERNATIONAL TRADE Introductory remarks ....................... ................ Development of international trade ................... International trade by weight ......... The share of air transport in international trade ......... Values per unit weight of air and surface freight Potential air freight commodities ................. Appendix 3 1. . Analysis of air freight penetration in North Atlantic trade ....................... 4 . DEVELOPMENT OF ALR FREIGHT TRAFFIC introductory remarks ....................... ...... Volume and distribution of the airlines' freight traffic Freight traffic at airports in the Europe-Mediterranean region . ............. Development of freight traffic since 1960 Freight traffic flows ........................ Appendix 4 1 . . Countries in the Europe-Mediterranean region . . .... .. Appendix 4.2 Countries and their 84 scheduled airlines Appendix 4.3 . . Volume of air freight for world and by regions 1968 ........................... Appendix 4.4 . . Volume of air freight by nationality of the airlines 1960- 1968 ........................ ...... .. Appendix 4 5 Volume of air freight by airlines 1968 Appendix 4.6 . . Freight traffic at 61 international airports in ............ the Europe -Medite rranean region . 19 68 Appendix 4.7 .. Traffic flow data 1968 .............. Appendix 4.8. . All cargo capacity. traffic and load factors on stages of Europe -Mediterranean region and between this and . ...................... other regions in 1968
ii fCAO Circular 97-/18 5 . FEATURES OF THE AIR FREIGHT BUSINESS .................... Airlines and aircraft fleets ................ Commercial rights and air freight ..................... Shippers and forwarders ...................... Air freight shipments ............ Periodic variations in air freight demand .......... Directional imbalances in air freight demand 6 . FACILITATION Facilitation Aspects of Air Cargo. including Cargo Handling . . General ............................. .................. Documentary requirements .................. Examination of export cargo ............. Arrangements for last-minute Loading ........................... Import cargo Prompt release under "informal entrytt or equiva1,e nt procedures ........ Clearance of shipments of low value or weight Possible application of simple parcel post clearance procedures to air cargo ................... ... Clearance delays due to unavailability of documents. etc Transit and transfer cargo .................... ................. Customs faciLitie s and services ............. Clearance at points other than airports Clearance by Customs on behalf of other government agencies . .... Central and de-centralized customs service at airports .......................... Ground bandling .......... Provision of adequate facilities and services ....... Temporary storage vis-3-vis'warehouse'facilities ...................... Containers and pallets The use of data processing methods for control purposes etc . . 7 . ECONOMXCS OF AIR CARGO OPERATIONS Intrductim ................ Cost characteristics of cargo operations ........ Aircraft operating costs Ground and indirect operating costs . . ....... Intercontinental operations ....... Intra- European operations The structure of ground handling costs Minimum consignment costs ...... Economic aspects-of cargo marketing . . The competitive status of air cargo . . Air cargo rates .............. The level of cargo rates ........ The structure of cargo rates ...... ........ Cargo rates and distance . .............. Cargo density ...... Unitization and consolidation Page 79
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