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Circular 160
International Air Passenger and Freight Transport - Asia and The Pacific
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CIRCULAR INTERNATIONAL AIR PASSENGER AND FREIGHT TRANSPORT ASIA AND THE PACIFIC Prepared by the Semfwy Gen.eral and published by decision of the Councr'l INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVlATlON ORGANIZATION MONTREAL CANADA
PuBIished in prspdrar Xndigh, Erndh and SpaniI jt"fbn.p IP Inrnofioarrl Civil A qaiion Ornizariu. A Ii coxripisriden, PXCPPI order. ad suhcf fptiom, qwld b2 ftddred to rhe 5arrty Cenwd rf ICA0, P. 0. Box 800, Ph 1 Yilxfion rnrnationak li SAerboka SFPP WPS, Mossfrflal, QPc, Chd H3A 283, Wdcn for hi publicipn quld be wnt to ope of the fallewkg addresses, together wiih the appropriate remittance by bank draft or 1st tffiCe mofiey order in U.5, dollars or Fae cuxreBcy of the wudtry in ich the wdkr i5pkxM. Egyp rub Repubfk ul, I AQ Repreprrui'\r, Miak hi ad EET AErhfi Qfftce, 16 Hamn Sri, Zanrilek, Cairo. Fmqe Jkepnkqtgnt de rUAC1, Bumau EUFIEG, 3h, villa Ernjlekrgtrt, 92200 Neuilly-at-Saide . I. Oxford Elook and Skiioncry Po., Stindiir VSE, New Ddhi or 17 f ark Stre, Catcut. hn. JaphCixil Aviaissn Prlizo1bn Fwndah. No. 38. Shibrr CatOhirs-Cho, Minatb-b, Tm. MmBd Rwresenbnte Be fa OACl, Ofidnit NarcgaMvric Y Crarik. Apartah pmial 5-37, Mexk 5, D F. Pgm. Rmmanunre de L O'AC1, b9eitxt-t Subrniria, Apart 4127. Lima EXepkenranr de 1'8ACI. Bweau hfr-ique, Boite phle 2356, Mar. a. Libreria rle Aronda y ASITPSI rice Sqmas, Dam, i2-3jt3, Madrid U , Swede. C,L Wfzes Kulgl. Havbkhan.de1, Fredaaran 2, bx 16356, Swkkolm 16. T'hdmd iC AO Repraenurie. Far st and Pacific Ofice, P8 hx 6 14, Bamkuk. Uiri Ktm Civil AviaiUfl AU thty, Pfinting and Pybhcariam Services, EPeviUe Heuse, 37 Grdror Road, Chei tenham, Gia., GL5D 20N Do you receive the ICAO BULLETIN The ICAQ Bulletin contans a somw account of the activities of ths Organization as well as articlesof interes to the berbnautical wortd, The Wlladn will also keep you up to date an the late51 ICAO publim- tian, their contents, amendmts, upptments, corrigenda, and prices. AvwlWe tn three ssparaM tedtlwrs Englrsk. Frenth and Spnisb. Annual wbwriptidn U8.15.W kucfate mail LI.S,S20.00 air mail I.
INTERNATIONAL AIR PASSENGER AND FREXMT TRANSPORT - ASW AND THE PACIFIC FOREWORD Origin and purpose 1. This Study, which deals with the development of air passenger and air freight transport to, from and within the Asia and Pacific region, is one in a series produced in response to Resolution A18-20 adopted by the Assembly of the International Civil Aviation Organization in 1971. It is the fourth in the series to deal with both passenger and freight activity, earlier studies, as shown below, having dealt separately with these two activities. The first round in this continuing programme covering all regions of the world was completed with the publication of the North American Study in 1976. The second round is intended to be more condensed, and to up-date the material presented in earlier studies. International air passenger and air freight transport Africa Circular 147-AT/51 1979 Latin America and the CarLbbean Circular 141-AT/ 46 1978 North America Circular 128-AT/37 1976 International air passenger transport Eurape Circular 114-AT129 1973 Asia and the Pacific Circular 108-AT127 1972 The Middle East Circular 93-AT/17 1969 Latin America and the Caribbean Circular 90-AT/16 1968 Africa Circular 80-/13 1967 International air freight transport Asia and the Pacific Circular 124-AT/34 1975 Africa Circular 104-AT/25 1971 Europe-Mediterranean Circular 97-AT/18 19701 Latin America and the Caribbean Doc. 8487-AT/720 1965 2. The Assembly's action was based on recognition of the importance of the effi- cient and economic development of international air passenger and air freight services in connexion especially with the growth of tourism and trade, and of the usefulness of studies designed to further this development. The overall objective of these studies was stated as being to assist States by providing current information on trends and developments, and by indicating obstacles to further development and measures to overcome these obstacles. Scope of the Study 3. The region dealt with here and referred to as Asia and the Pacific , canprises 32 sovereign States of which 25 are Contracting States of ICAO and a number of dependent territories as shown in Map 1, and listed in Appendix 1 The study is concerned with the development of international air passenger and air freight services within this region and between it and other parts of the world during the decade ending 31 December 1979. It concentrates on questions of organization, economics, finance and facilitation.
ii ICAO Circdar 160-AT158 4. The study is intended to be a general review of trends and developments and obstacles to further development. 'She work presupposes that, where necessary, States will make and implerr.ent their own plans for development. It is hoped, nevertheless, that this review will be of value in the preparation of these plans and in the formula- tion of policies, Sources and limits of information 5. One of the main sources of inforr.ation available to XCAO for this as for all air transport studies is the data regularly filed by Contracting States on Air Transport Reporting Forms and published in seven series of statistical digests Traffic, Traffic by Flight Stage, On Flight Origin and Destinatton, Airport Traffic, Fleet and Personnel, Civil Aircraft an Register and Financial Data. It may be noted that not all States are able to file all of the data requested and that there are still certain deficiencies in the statistical eaterial that ICAO has agreed should be requested on the Reportang Forms. Far example, no data are requested on the "true" origins and destinations of traffic , ad traffic data are not reported for many important international airports. It is not possible, using the fleet and financial data, to distinguish between international and domestic operations, where carriers axe engaged in both types of activity. Finally, no distinction is made in che financial data between the costs attributable to various categories of load, nor do they permit analysis by route or by aircraft type, 6. To supplement the data available from the statistical programme, questionnaires were addressed to the Contracting States in the region, and to the other ICAO States with airlines operaring to the region. Replies to these questionnaires were received from the following Australia Germany, Bed. Rep. Netherlands Bahrain Italy New Zealand Bangladesh Japan Poland Brazil Korea Singapore Canada Malaysia Switzerland Prance Mauritius United Kingdom United States Information was also obtained from seven States in the region Australia, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Japan, Nepal and Thailand as a result of a mission undertaken by a member of the Headquarters Secretariat to establish direct personal contact with appropriate government, air carrier, and other off ic ids. 7. Another source of information available for air transport studies is the large and constantly up-dated collection of material on hand at ICAO Headquarters, including completed ICAO studies, the periodical and occasional publications of national administra- tions and international organizations, the studies prepared by research agencies and individuals and the aviation press. A selected Bibliography is given in Appendix 6. Finally, the ICAO air transport officer based in Bangkok played an active role in aupple- menting and corroborating the informatfan gathered by all of the above-mentioned means. Finalization of text 8. This study, completed on the basis of the information gathered in the ways indicated above, was reviewed by the Air Transporr Committee. Taking into account the comments made by the Committee, the present text was prepared by the Secretary General and published by decision of the Council of ICAO.
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