CIRCULAR INTERNATIONAL AIR PASSENGER AND FREIGHT TRANSPORT MIDDLE EAST Prepared by the Secretary General idfpublished by decision of the Council INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION MONTREAL CANADA
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INTERNATIONAL AIR PASSENGER AND FREIGHT TRANSPORT - MIDDLE EAST FOREWORD Origin and purpose 1. This Study, which deals with the development of air passenger and air freight transport to, from and within the Middle East region, is one in a series produced in response to Resolution A18-20 adopted by the Assembly of the International Civil Aviation Organization in 1971. It is the fifth in the series to deal with both passenger and freight activity, earlier studies, as shown below, having dealt separately with these two activities. The first round in this continuing programme covering all regions of the world was completed with the publication of the North American Study in 1976. The second round is intended to be more condensed, and to up-date the material presented in earlier studies . International air passenger and air freight transport Asia and the Pacific Circular 160-AT150 1980 Africa Circular 147-AT151 1979 Latin America and the Caribbean Circular 141-AT146 1978 North America Circular 128-AT137 1976 International air passenger transport Europe Circular 114-AT129 1973 Asia and the Pacific Circular 103-AT127 1972 The Middle East Circular 93-A/17 19169 Latin America and the Caribbean Circular 90-AT116 1968 Africa Circular 80-AT113 1967 International air freight transport Asia and the Pacific Circular 124-AT134 1975 Africa Circular 104-AT125 1971 Europe-Mediterranean Circular 97-AT118 1970 Latin America and the Caribbean Doc. 8487-A/720 1965 2. The Assembly's action was based on recognition of the importance of the efficient and economic development of international air passenger and air freight services in connexion especially with the growth of tourism and trade, and of the usefulness of studies designed to further this development. The overall objective of these studies was stated as being to assist States by providing current information on trends and develop- ments, and by indicating obstacles to further development and measures to overcome these obstacles. Scope of the Study 3. The region dealt with here and referred to as the Middle East, comprises 14 sovereign States all of which are Contracting States of ICAO, as shown in Map 1, and listed in Appendix 1. The study is concerned with the development of international air passenger and air freight services within this region and between it and other parts of the world during the decade ending 31 December 1980. It concentrates on questions of organization, economics, finance and facilitation.
4. The study is intended to be a general review of trends and developments and obstacles to further developnent. The work presupposes that, where necessary, States will make and implement their own plans for development. It is hoped, nevertheless, that this review will be of value in the preparation of these plans and in the formulation of policies. Sources and limits of information 5. One of the main sources of information available to ICAO for this as for all air transport studies is the data regularly filed by Contracting States on Air Transport Reporting Forms and published in seven series of statistical digests Traffic, Traffic by Flight Stage, On Flight Origin and Destination, Airport Traffic, Fleet and Personnel, Civil Aircraft on Register and Financial Data. It may be noted that not all States are able to file all of the data requested and that there are still certain deficiencies in the statistical material that ICAO has agreed should be requested on the Reporting Forms. For example, no data are requested on the "true" origins and destinations of traf f icy and traffic data are not reported for some important international airports. It is not possible, using the fleet and financial data, to distinguish between international and domestic operations, where carriers are engaged in both types of activity. Finally, no distinction is made in the financial data between the costs attributable to various categories of load, nor do they permit analysis by route or by aircraft type. 6. To supplement the data available from the statistical programme, question- naires were addressed to the Contracting States in the region, and to the other ICAO States with airlines operating to the region. Replies to these questionnaires were received from the following Austria Indonesia Nigeria Australia Iran Pakistan Belgium Italy Poland Cyprus Japan Singapore Czechoslovakia Korea Rep. of Switzerland France Malaysia Thailand Germany, Fed. Rep. Morocco United Kingdom India Netherlands Kingdom of the United States Yemen Arab Republic Information was also obtained from five States in the region Bahrain, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Yemen Arab Republic as a result of a mission undertaken by a member of the Headquarters Secretariat to establish direct personal contact with appropriate government, air carrier, and other officials. 7. Another source of information available for air transport studies is the large and constantly up-dated collection of material on hand at ICAO Headquarters, in- cluding completed ICAO studies, the periodical and occasional publications of national administrations and international organizations, the studies prepared by research agencies and individuals and the aviation press. A selected Bibliography is given in Appendix 6. Finalization of text 8. This study, completed on the basis of the information gathered in the ways indicated above, was reviewed by the Air Transport Committee. Taking into account the comments made by the Committee, the present text was prepared by the Secretary General and published by decision of the Council of ICAO.