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Circular 222
The Economic Situation of Air Transport: Review and Outlook - 1978 to the Year 2000
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CIRCULAR THE ECONOMIC SITUATION OF AIR TRANSPORT REVIEW AND OUTLOOK 1978 TO THE YEAR 2000 Approved by the Secretary General and published under his authority INTERNATIONAL CIVL AVlAT ION ORGANIZAT EON MONTREAL CANADA
Published in separate English, Frertch, Russian ad Spanish editions by the International Civil 3vicrtion Organization. A II correspondence, except orders and mbscrfplions, should be addressed to the Secretary General. Orders for this publication should be sent to one of the following addresses, together with the appropriate remittance by bank draft or post office money order in U.S. doIlars or the currency of the collnrry in which the order is placed. Document Sales Unit International Civil Aviation Organization 1000 Sherbrooke Street West, Suite 4XI Montreal, Quebec Canada H3A 2R2 Egypt. ICAO Reprwntativt, MtddIe East Office. 9 Shagaret El Dorr Street, Zamalek 1 121 1, Cairo. France. Reprbentant de I'OACI. Bureau Europe, 3 bis, villa hile-flgerat, 92522 Ncuily-sur-Seine CBdm. India. Oxford Book and Stationery CO, Scindia House, New DeIhi or I7 Park Street, Calcutta. Jupun, Japan Civil Aviation Promotion Foundation, 15-12, I-chome, Toranomon, Minato-Ku, Tokyo. Kenya. ICAO Representative, Eastern and Southern African Office, U niled Nations Accommodation, P.O. Box 46294, Nairobi. Mexico. Repraentante de la OACI, Ohcina Norteamirica, CenrroamCrka y Caribe, Apartado postaI 5-377, C.P. 11590, Mkxico 5, D.F. Peru. Representane de 1a OACI, Oficina SudamCrica, Apartado 4127, Lima 100. Senegal. Representant de I'OACI, Bureau Afrique rlccidentale et centtale, Boite postale 5355, Dakar. Spain. Pilot's, Surninistros AeronAuticos, S.A., C/Ulises, 5-Oficina N6m. 2, 28043 Madrid. Thailand. ICAO Representative, Asia and Pacific Office, P.0, Box 614, Bangkok. United Kingdom. Civil Aviation Authority, Printing and Publications Services, Greville House, 37 Gratton Road, Cheltenham, Glw., GLSO 28N. The Catalogue of ICAO Publications Issued annually, the Catalogue lists all publications currently available. Monthly supplements announce new publications, amendments, supplements, reprints, etc, Available free from the Document Sales Unit, ICAO
FOREWORD Terms uf reference 1. This review is the ninth in a triennial qeries beginning with lCAO Circular 73 published in 1965 and followed by Circular 89 1968, Circular 105 1971 j, Circular 122 3974, Circular 133 19771, Circular 158 1980, Circular 177 1983 and Circular 200 1986. After examination of the second review, the Sixteenth Session of the Assembly expressed the view that similar documents should be produced for each major session as background material for the work of the Econonlic Commission. At the request of the Air Transport Corn- rnittee the present document incllides additional information on commercial and regulatory prospects, primarily in Chapter I. Coverage 2. The coverage of fhis review extends to the whole of the Organization's 160 Contracting States as of 3 1 December 1988 for the period from 1978 to 1988, data for new States having been included retro- actively where possible. Data for 1988 have been estimated on the basis of partial reporting for that year. Coverage extends to all activities of the scheduled airlines of Contracting States reparted to ICAO for the years 1978 to 1988 and published in the statistical series on aircraft on register, airline fleet and personnel airline traffic, and airline financial data. The activities of the non-scheduled operators are covered less fully since data for these carriers, nithough supplemented from other sources, are somewhat incompiete. Sources of information 3. In addition to the ICAO Digests of Statistics. use has been made of many of the Organization's economic studies, such as the earlier editions of this review, and the series of regional studies dealing with the development of international air freight and air passenger transport. Use has also been made of the Annual Reports of the Council to the Assembly for the years 1978 to 1988. 4. Sources of information other than ICAO, referred to in the text, include the appropriate and most recently available statistical publications of the United Nations the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNCTAD the European Civil Aviation Conference ECAC the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD the International Air Transport Association IATA the Association of European Airlines AEA the United States Department of Transportation DOT the World Tourism Organization WTO the International Monetary Fund IMF and the World Bank. 5. Unless indicated otherwise, all references in this circular to "cents'bean U.S. cents, and all references to 'IoiIars" mean U.S. dollars, Status 6. This circular has been approved and is published by authority of the Secretary General.
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of ICAO concerning the legal status of any country, territaqy, oity or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
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Table Of Contents
COVER PAGE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5