i FOREWORD Safety of the civil aviation system is the major objective of ICAO. Considerable progress has been made, but additional improvements are needed and can be achieved. It has long been known that less than optimum human performance underlies the majority of aviation accidents and incidents, indicating that any advance in this field will have a significant impact on the improvement of aviation safety. This was recognized by the ICAO Assembly, which in 1986 adopted Resolution A26-9 on Flight Safety and Human Factors. As a follow-up to the Assembly Resolution, the Air Navigation Commission formulated the following objective for the task To improve safety in aviation by making States more aware and responsive to the importance of human factors in civil aviation operations through the provision of practical human factors material and measures developed on the basis of experience in States, and by developing and recommending appropriate amendments to existing materials in Annexes and other documents with regard to the role of human factors in the present and future operational environments. Special emphasis will be directed to the human factors issues that may influence the design, transition and in-service use of the future ICAO CNS/ATM systems. One of the methods chosen to implement Assembly Resolution A26-9 is the publication of guidance materials, including manuals and a series of digests, which address various aspects of Human Factors and their impact on aviation safety. These documents are intended primarily for use by States to increase the awareness of their personnel on the influence of human performance on safety. The target audience of Human Factors manuals and digests is the managers of both civil aviation administrations and the airline industry, including airline safety, training and operational managers. The target audience also includes regulatory bodies, safety and investigation agencies and training establishments, as well as senior and middle, non-operational airline management. This digest is an introduction to the latest information available to the international aviation community on relevant Human Factors considerations for aircraft passenger cabin safety. OVERVIEW Chapter 1 describes how cabin crew training is geared towards the development of emerging competencies in support of the establishment and maintenance of high team performance standards. This has been achieved with the development of a CRM-based team approach to solving complex operational problems. Chapter 2 addresses the fact that critical safety briefings are usually ignored by passengers. The safety briefings content and procedures need to be enhanced to optimize their potential safety benefit. Chapter 3 presents the numerous issues surrounding aircraft exit and evacuation. There are several aspects of aircraft exit and evacuation that can help mitigate the risk of severe injuries. The completion of a safe evacuation is highly dependent on the usability of safety equipment. It also depends on a relevant Human Factors aspect which is the competent management of passenger behaviour e.g. disruptive passengers for the safety of others. Disruptive, competitive behaviours have been reported in studies of evacuations with monetary incentives and in accident reports where evacuations have taken place during a cabin fire.
ii ICAO Circular 300-AN/173 Chapter 4 highlights several central organizational considerations, such as culture, policy development and implementation, and error management, all of which directly impact the attainment of operational objectives. These organizational factors need to be carefully considered so that they can support a human-centred safety and security culture throughout an organization. A brief overview of error management elements is also presented. Appendix A lists Annexes to the Convention on International Civil Aviation that include Human Factors Standards and Recommended Practices. Appendix B describes human strength limits in the creation of design guides. Appendix C provides information on Human Factors audit elements for cabin crew training. Appendix D contains the Bibliography.