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Annex 8. Edition 13
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Airworthiness of Aircraft
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INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATIONAnnex 8For information regarding the applicability of the Standards and Recommended Practices, see the Foreword.This edition supersedes, on 3 November 2022, all previous editions of Annex 8.Thirteenth Edition, July 2022to the Convention on International Civil AviationAirworthiness of AircraftInternational Standardsand Recommended Practices
Published in separate English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish editions by the INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION 999 Robert-Bourassa Boulevard, Montral, Quebec, Canada H3C 5H7 For ordering information and for a complete listing of sales agents and booksellers, please go to the ICAO website at www.icao.int First Edition, 1949 Twelfth Edition, 2018 Thirteenth Edition, 2022 Annex 8, Airworthiness of Aircraft Order Number AN 8 ISBN 978-92-9265-731-4 print version ICAO 2022 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, without prior permission in writing from the International Civil Aviation Organization.
iii AMENDMENTS Amendments are announced in the supplements to the Products and Services Catalogue the Catalogue and its supplements are available on the ICAO website at www.icao.int. The space below is provided to keep a record of such amendments. RECORD OF AMENDMENTS AND CORRIGENDA AMENDMENTS CORRIGENDA No. Date applicable Date entered Entered by No. Date of issue Date entered Entered by 1-109 Incorporated in this edition.
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Table Of Contents
COVER PAGE
AMENDMENTS
CONTENTS
FOREWORD
PART I. DEFINITIONS
PART II. PROCEDURES FOR CERTIFICATION AND CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS
1.1 Applicability
CHAPTER 1. TYPE CERTIFICATION
1.2 Design aspects of the appropriate airworthiness requirements
1.3 Proof of compliance with the appropriate airworthiness requirements
1.4 Issuance of Type Certificate
1.5 Suspension of Type Certificate
1.7 Transfer of Type Certificate
1.6 Revocation of Type Certificate
2.1 Applicability
2.3 Aircraft parts production
2.4 Production approval
2.2 Aircraft, engine and propeller production
CHAPTER 2. PRODUCTION
3.2 Eligibility, issuance and continued validity of a Certificate of Airworthiness
CHAPTER 3. CERTIFICATE OF AIRWORTHINESS
3.1 Applicability
3.5 Temporary loss of airworthiness
3.4 Aircraft limitations and information
3.3 Standard form of Certificate of Airworthiness
3.6 Damage to aircraft
4.2 Responsibilities of Contracting States in respect of continuing airworthiness
CHAPTER 4. CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS
4.1 Applicability
CHAPTER 5. SAFETY MANAGEMENT
CHAPTER 6. MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION APPROVAL
6.2 Maintenance organization approval
6.1 Applicability
6.3 Maintenance organization’s procedures manual
6.4 Maintenance procedures and quality assurance system
6.5 Facilities
6.6 Personnel
6.7 Records
6.8 Maintenance release
1.2 Number of engines
PART III. LARGE AEROPLANES
PART IIIA. AEROPLANES OVER 5 700 KG FOR WHICH APPLICATION FOR CERTIFICATION WAS SUBMITTED ON OR AFTER 13 JUNE 1960 BUT BEFORE 2 MARCH 2004
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL
1.1 Applicability
1.5 Proof of compliance
1.3 Operating limitations
1.4 Unsafe features and characteristics
CHAPTER 2. FLIGHT
2.1 General
2.2 Performance
2.3 Flying qualities
CHAPTER 3. STRUCTURE
3.2 Airspeeds
3.1 General
3.4 Ground and water loads
3.3 Flight loads
3.6 Flutter, divergence and vibration
3.5 Miscellaneous loads
3.7 Fatigue strength
4.1 General
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
CHAPTER 5. ENGINES
5.1 Scope
5.2 Design, construction and functioning
5.4 Tests
5.3 Declared ratings, conditions and limitations
6.1 Scope
6.3 Declared ratings, conditions and limitations
6.4 Tests
CHAPTER 6. PROPELLERS
6.2 Design, construction and functioning
7.2 Arrangement and functioning
CHAPTER 7. POWERPLANT INSTALLATION
7.1 General
8.2 Installation
8.4 Navigation lights and anti-collision lights
CHAPTER 8. INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT
8.1 Required instruments and equipment
8.3 Safety and survival equipment
CHAPTER 9. OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND INFORMATION
9.1 General
9.2 Operating limitations
9.3 Operating information and procedures
9.5 Aeroplane flight manual
9.4 Performance information
9.6 Markings and placards
10.2 Maintenance information
10.3 Maintenance programme information
10.4 Maintenance information resulting from the type design approval
CHAPTER 10. CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS —MAINTENANCE INFORMATION
10.1 General
11.2 Least-risk bomb location
CHAPTER 11. SECURITY
11.1 Aeroplanes used for domestic commercial operations
11.3 Protection of the flight crew compartment
11.4 Interior design
PART IIIB. AEROPLANES OVER 5 700 KG FOR WHICH APPLICATIONFOR CERTIFICATION WAS SUBMITTED ON OR AFTER 2 MARCH 2004
1.3 Operating limitations
1.2 Number of engines
1.1 Applicability
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL
1.4 Unsafe features and characteristics
1.5 Proof of compliance
2.2 Performance
2.1 General
CHAPTER 2. FLIGHT
2.3 Flying qualities
2.4 Stability and control
3.2 Mass and mass distribution
3.5 Airspeeds
3.4 Strength and deformation
CHAPTER 3. STRUCTURE
3.1 General
3.3 Limit loads
3.6 Strength
3.7 Survivability
3.8 Structural durability
3.9 Special factors
4.1 General
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
4.2 Systems design features
4.3 Aeroelasticity
4.4 Occupants accommodation features
4.5 Electrical bonding and protection against lightning and static electricity
4.7 Ground handling
4.6 Emergency landing provisions
CHAPTER 5. POWERPLANT
5.2 Propellers
5.3 Powerplant installation
5.1 Engines
6.1 General
CHAPTER 6. SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
6.2 Installation
6.3 Safety and survival equipment
6.5 Electromagnetic interference protection
6.4 Navigation lights and anti-collision lights
6.6 Ice protection
7.1 General
CHAPTER 7. OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND INFORMATION
7.2 Operating limitations
7.3 Operating information and procedures
7.6 Markings and placards
7.7 Continuing airworthiness — maintenance information
7.4 Performance information
7.5 Flight manual
8.3 Cabin fire protection
8.2 Design emergency landing loads
8.1 General
CHAPTER 8. CRASHWORTHINESS AND CABIN SAFETY
8.5 Lighting and marking
8.4 Evacuation
8.6 Survival equipment
9.2 Flight crew
9.3 Ergonomics
CHAPTER 9. OPERATING ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN FACTORS
9.1 General
9.4 Operating environmental factors
10.3 Protection of the flight crew compartment
CHAPTER 10. SECURITY
10.1 Aeroplanes used for domestic commercial operations
10.2 Least-risk bomb location
10.4 Interior design
1.2 Limitations
PART IV. HELICOPTERS
PART IVA. HELICOPTERS FOR WHICH APPLICATION FOR CERTIFICATIONWAS SUBMITTED ON OR AFTER 22 MARCH 1991BUT BEFORE 13 DECEMBER 2007
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL
1.1 Applicability
1.4 Proof of compliance
1.3 Unsafe features and characteristics
2.2 Performance
CHAPTER 2. FLIGHT
2.1 General
2.3 Flying qualities
CHAPTER 3. STRUCTURE
3.1 General
3.2 Airspeeds
3.4 Flight loads
3.3 Main rotor(s) rotational speed limits
3.6 Miscellaneous loads
3.5 Ground and water loads
3.7 Flutter, divergence and vibration
3.8 Fatigue strength
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
4.1 General
CHAPTER 5. ENGINES
5.2 Design, construction and functioning
5.3 Declared ratings, conditions and limitations
5.1 Scope
6.1 General
6.3 Declared ratings, conditions and limitations
6.4 Tests
CHAPTER 6. ROTOR AND POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEMSAND POWERPLANT INSTALLATION
6.2 Design, construction and functioning
6.5 Compliance with engine and rotor and powertransmission systems limitations
6.7 Engine restarting
6.8 Arrangement and functioning
6.6 Control of engine rotation
7.1 Required instruments and equipment
7.4 Navigation lights and anti-collision lights
7.3 Safety and survival equipment
CHAPTER 7. INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT
7.2 Installation
CHAPTER 8. ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
9.1 General
9.2 Operating limitations
CHAPTER 9. OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND INFORMATION
9.3 Operating information and procedures
9.4 Performance information
9.6 Markings and placards
9.5 Helicopter flight manual
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL
PART IVB. HELICOPTERS FOR WHICH APPLICATION FOR CERTIFICATION WAS SUBMITTED ON OR AFTER 13 DECEMBER 2007
1.1 Applicability
1.2 Operating limitations
1.3 Unsafe features and characteristics
1.4 Proof of compliance
2.2 Performance
2.1 General
CHAPTER 2. FLIGHT
2.3 Flying qualities
2.4 Stability and control
3.5 Airspeeds
3.2 Mass and mass distribution
3.3 Limit loads
3.4 Strength and deformation
CHAPTER 3. STRUCTURE
3.1 General
3.7 Loads
3.8 Ground and water loads
3.6 Main rotor(s) rotational speed limits
3.10 Fatigue strength
3.9 Miscellaneous loads
3.11 Special factors
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
4.1 General
4.4 Occupant accommodation features
4.2 Systems design features
4.3 Flutter
4.5 Electrical bonding and protection against lightning and static electricity
4.6 Emergency landing provisions
4.7 Ground handling
5.1 Engines
CHAPTER 5. ROTORS AND POWERPLANT
5.2 Rotors and powerplant installation
CHAPTER 6. SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
6.1 General
6.4 Navigation lights and anti-collision lights
6.2 Installation
6.3 Safety and survival equipment
6.5 Electromagnetic interference protection
6.6 Ice protection
CHAPTER 7. OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND INFORMATION
7.2 Operating limitations
7.1 General
7.3 Operating information and procedures
7.4 Performance information
7.6 Markings and placards
7.7 Continuing airworthiness — maintenance information
7.5 Flight manual
8.2 Design emergency landing loads
8.4 Evacuation
8.3 Cabin fire protection
CHAPTER 8. CRASHWORTHINESS AND CABIN SAFETY
8.1 General
8.5 Lighting and marking
9.1 General
9.3 Ergonomics
9.2 Flight crew
CHAPTER 9. OPERATING ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN FACTORS
9.4 Operating environmental factors
1.1 Applicability
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL
1.2 Operating limitations
PART V. SMALL AEROPLANES
PART VA. AEROPLANES OVER 750 KG BUT NOT EXCEEDING 5 700 KG FOR WHICH APPLICATION FOR CERTIFICATION WAS SUBMITTED ON OR AFTER 13 DECEMBER 2007 BUT BEFORE 7 MARCH 2021
1.3 Unsafe features and characteristics
1.4 Proof of compliance
2.1 General
CHAPTER 2. FLIGHT
2.2 Performance
2.3 Flying qualities
2.4 Stability and control
3.2 Mass and mass distribution
3.3 Limit loads
CHAPTER 3. STRUCTURE
3.5 Airspeeds
3.4 Strength and deformation
3.1 General
3.7 Survivability
3.6 Strength
3.8 Structural durability
3.9 Special factors
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
4.1 General
4.2 Systems design features
4.4 Occupant accommodation features
4.6 Emergency landing provisions
4.5 Electrical bonding and protection against lightning and static electricity
4.3 Aeroelasticity
4.7 Ground handling
5.2 Propellers
5.1 Engines
5.3 Powerplant installation
CHAPTER 5. POWERPLANT
CHAPTER 6. SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
6.1 General
6.6 Ice protection
6.3 Safety and survival equipment
6.4 Navigation lights and anti-collision lights
6.5 Electromagnetic interference protection
6.2 Installation
7.1 General
7.2 Operating limitations
CHAPTER 7. OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND INFORMATION
7.4 Performance information
7.3 Operating information and procedures
7.7 Continuing airworthiness — maintenance information
7.5 Flight manual
7.6 Markings and placards
8.3 Cabin fire protection
CHAPTER 8. CRASHWORTHINESS AND CABIN SAFETY
8.1 General
8.2 Design emergency landing loads
8.4 Evacuation
8.5 Lighting and marking
9.3 Ergonomics
9.2 Flight crew
9.1 General
CHAPTER 9. OPERATING ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN FACTORS
9.4 Operating environmental factors
1.1 Applicability
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL
1.2 Operating limitations
PART VB. AEROPLANES NOT EXCEEDING 5 700 KG FOR WHICH APPLICATION FOR CERTIFICATION IS SUBMITTED ON OR AFTER 7 MARCH 2021
1.3 Unsafe features and characteristics
1.4 Proof of compliance
2.1 General
CHAPTER 2. FLIGHT
2.2 Performance
2.3 Flying qualities
2.4 Stability and control
3.2 Mass and mass distribution
3.5 Airspeeds
3.4 Strength and deformation
CHAPTER 3. STRUCTURE
3.1 General
3.3 Limit loads
3.8 Structural durability
3.6 Strength
3.7 Survivability
3.9 Special factors
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
4.1 General
4.2 Systems design features
4.5 Electrical bonding and protection against lightning and static electricity
4.4 Occupant accommodation features
4.6 Emergency landing provisions
4.3 Aeroelasticity
4.7 Ground handling
5.1 Engines
CHAPTER 5. POWERPLANT
5.2 Propellers
5.3 Powerplant installation
CHAPTER 6. SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
6.1 General
6.6 Ice protection
6.3 Safety and survival equipment
6.4 Navigation lights and anti-collision lights
6.5 Electromagnetic interference protection
6.2 Installation
7.1 General
7.2 Operating limitations
CHAPTER 7. OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND INFORMATION
7.4 Performance information
7.3 Operating information and procedures
7.6 Markings and placards
7.5 Flight manual
7.7 Continuing airworthiness — maintenance information
8.2 Design emergency landing loads
8.4 Evacuation
8.3 Cabin fire protection
CHAPTER 8. CRASHWORTHINESS AND CABIN SAFETY
8.1 General
8.5 Lighting and marking
9.1 General
9.3 Ergonomics
9.2 Flight crew
CHAPTER 9. OPERATING ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN FACTORS
9.4 Operating environmental factors
1.1 Applicability
1.4 Continuing airworthiness – maintenance information
1.3 Declared ratings, conditions and limitations
PART VI. ENGINES
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL
1.2 Engine installation and interfaces
2.1 Functioning
CHAPTER 2. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
2.2 Failure analysis
2.3 Materials and manufacturing methods
2.4 Integrity
CHAPTER 3. TESTS
1.3 Continuing airworthiness — maintenance information
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL
1.1 Applicability
PART VII. PROPELLERS
1.2 Declared ratings, conditions and limitations
2.3 Materials and manufacturing methods
CHAPTER 2. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
2.1 Functioning
2.2 Failure analysis
2.4 Pitch control and indication
3.1 Blade retention test
CHAPTER 3. TESTS AND INSPECTIONS
3.2 Operational and endurance tests
1.2 Operating limitations
PART VIII. REMOTELY PILOTED AEROPLANES
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL
1.1 Applicability
1.4 Proof of compliance
1.3 Unsafe features and characteristics
CHAPTER 2. FLIGHT
2.1 General
2.2 Performance
2.3 Flying qualities
2.4 Stability and control
3.4 Strength and deformation
CHAPTER 3. STRUCTURE
3.1 General
3.2 Mass and mass distribution
3.3 Limit loads
3.5 Airspeeds
3.7 Structural durability
3.8 Special factors
3.6 Strength
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
4.1 General
4.3 Aeroelasticity
4.2 Systems design features
4.4 Electrical bonding and protection against lightning and static electricity
4.5 Ground handling
5.3 Powerplant installation
CHAPTER 5. POWERPLANT
5.1 Engines
5.2 Propellers
CHAPTER 6. SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
6.1 General
6.4 Electromagnetic interference protection
6.2 Installation
6.3 Navigation lights and anti-collision lights
6.5 Ice protection
7.1 General
CHAPTER 7. OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND INFORMATION
7.2 Operating limitations
7.3 Operating information and procedures
7.4 Performance information
7.6 Markings and placards
7.5 Remotely piloted aeroplane flight manual
7.7 Continuing airworthiness — maintenance information
7.8 C2 Link information
CHAPTER 8. RESERVED
9.2 Remote flight crew
CHAPTER 9. OPERATING ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN FACTORS
9.1 General
9.3 Ergonomics
10.2 Integration
CHAPTER 10. REMOTE PILOT STATION INTEGRATION
10.1 General
10.3 Controls and information
10.4 C2 Link
10.5 Flight manual
11.3 Launch methods
CHAPTER 11. REMOTELY PILOTED AEROPLANE UNIQUE CONSIDERATIONS
11.1 General
11.2 Transportation, storage and assembly
11.4 Recovery methods
11.5 Emergency recovery
11.6 Automatic taxi, take-off and landing
11.7 C2 Link
11.10 Security
11.8 Detect and avoid, and other equipment
11.9 Mission equipment
1.1 Applicability
PART IX. REMOTELY PILOTED HELICOPTERS (RPH)
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL
1.2 Operating limitations
1.3 Unsafe features and characteristics
1.4 Proof of compliance
2.1 General
CHAPTER 2. FLIGHT
2.2 Performance
2.3 Flying qualities
2.4 Stability and control
3.4 Strength and deformation
CHAPTER 3. STRUCTURE
3.1 General
3.2 Mass and mass distribution
3.3 Limit loads
3.5 Airspeeds
3.7 Loads
3.6 Main rotor(s) rotational speed limits
3.8 Ground and water loads
3.10 Fatigue strength
3.9 Miscellaneous loads
3.11 Special factors
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
4.1 GENERAL
4.2 Systems design features
4.3 Flutter
4.5 Ground handling
4.4 Electrical bonding and protection against lightning and static electricity
CHAPTER 5. ROTORS AND POWERPLANT
5.1 ENGINES
5.2 Rotors and powerplant installation
CHAPTER 6. SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
6.1 General
6.5 Ice protection
6.2 Installation
6.3 Navigation lights and anti-collision lights
6.4 Electromagnetic interference protection
7.1 General
CHAPTER 7. OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND INFORMATION
7.2 Operating limitations
7.3 Operating information and procedures
7.4 Performance information
7.6 Markings and placards
7.5 Remotely piloted helicopter flight manual
7.7 Continuing airworthiness — maintenance information
7.8 C2 Link information
CHAPTER 8. RESERVED
9.2 Remote flight crew
CHAPTER 9. OPERATING ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN FACTORS
9.1 General
9.3 Ergonomics
10.2 Integration
CHAPTER 10. REMOTE PILOT STATION INTEGRATION
10.1 General
10.3 Controls and information
10.4 C2 Link
10.5 Flight manual
11.3 Launch methods
CHAPTER 11. REMOTELY PILOTED HELICOPTER UNIQUE CONSIDERATIONS
11.1 General.
11.2 Transportation, storage and assembly
11.4 Recovery methods
11.6 Automatic taxi, take-off and landing
11.5 Emergency recovery
11.7 C2 Link
11.9 Mission equipment
11.8 Detect and avoid, and other equipment
11.10 Security
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL
1.1 Applicability
1.2 RPS interfaces and integration
1.3 Continuing airworthiness — maintenance information
PART X. REMOTE PILOT STATION (RPS)
2.4 Materials and manufacturing methods
2.6 Handling of the remote pilot station
2.5 Electrical bonding and protection against lightning and static electricity
CHAPTER 2. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
2.1 Fire, smoke and toxic gas protection
2.2 Functioning
2.3 Failure analysis
3.3 Electromagnetic interference protection
CHAPTER 3. SYSTEM AND EQUIPMENT
3.1 General
3.2 Electrical power supply
3.4 Development assurance of complex electronic hardware and system software
4.1 Fire protection
CHAPTER 4. REMOTE FLIGHT CREW COMPARTMENT SAFETY
4.2 Evacuation
5.3 Ergonomics
CHAPTER 5. OPERATING ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN FACTORS
5.1 General
5.2 Remote flight crew
5.4 Operating environmental factors
6.2 Operating information and procedures
CHAPTER 6. OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND INFORMATION
6.1 General
6.3 RPS operating manual
CHAPTER 7. SECURITY
7.1 Remote pilot station access control
7.2 Systems security
APPENDIX. APPROVED MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION (AMO) CERTIFICATE
1. Purpose and scope
2. AMO template